After having been closed for more than 10 years, the Kunstkammer was again opened to the public in March 2013, with the aim of making the history of the Habsburg collection and its most important figureheads known to an interested public of today.
The highest conservational requirements, content-related didactic criteria, but also emotional and aesthetic factors played an equally essential role for the new presentation of this cabinet of curiosities.
Yet, the approx. 2000 exhibits could not be more different in nature: among the highlights are outstanding works of the goldsmith’s art, such as the famous Saliera by Benvenuto Cellini, first-rate specimens of sculpture, such as the Krumau Madonna, masterly bronze statuettes, delicate ivory items, but also precious clocks, games and scientific instruments.
Zumtobel has developed a customised LED lighting solution in order to obtain highly differentiated, gentle and effective illumination of the various objects on display. At the heart of the lighting solution is the Starbrick, a Zumtobel Masterpiece developed in collaboration with Danish-Icelandic artist Olafur Eliasson.
Boasting unpretentious elegance and multi-functionality, the Starbrick is the only representative of contemporary art and cutting-edge technology in these rooms of the museum that were opened for the first time in 1891.
The installation includes a total of 51 Starbrick assemblies consisting of four modules each, especially designed for illuminating the unique and sensitive works of art. Additional direct light is ensured by integrated Supersystem spotlights and indirect light is provided by a Panos Infinity module, while one of the Starbrick’s surfaces that is directed downwards doubles as emergency lighting.
In addition to LED Supersystem spotlights mounted on the walls, individual Supersystem spotlights were also installed in the showcases. Especially in the showcases, each of them a highly sensitive closed system, the benefits of LED technology can be fully exploited.
Thus, light-emitting diodes not only boast a long service life and high energy efficiency, combined with reduced maintenance cost, but also ensure effective and at the same time gentle presentation of the exhibits.
Moreover, the light colours can be individually matched to the colours and materials of the exhibits, so that the latter can unfurl their full charm and allow visitors to experience them authentically.
“We wanted to show this unique collection in the right light, literally.” Dr. Sabine Haag, director of the Vienna Museum of Art History
The exposed concrete building of the Museo nazionale delle arti del XXI secolo – MAXXI – is like a sculpture featuring a multi-faceted interplay of light and shadow. The sunlight falling through incisions and apertures draws bright patterns, shadows travel over the wide forecourt, the inside and outside being interwoven in subtle ways. In the form of canopy roofs, the projecting building units guide the visitor into the lobby that extends over the entire height of the building. Intersecting stairways and bridges connect the five exhibition levels, a “vertical piazza” directs the flow of movements. Natural light floods into the building from the glazed roof to the floor, finely tuned by a specially developed luminous ceiling that incorporates indirect lighting from fluorescent lamps that can be switched on additionally as needed. This combined system provides for uniform ambient lighting. In addition to that, artificial lighting is used as a deliberate creative tool to dynamically highlight the routing system. Stairways and bridges are turned into “bearers of light”. Their translucent, glittering undersides equipped with fluorescent lamps behind light-scattering film and acrylic glass seem like luminous display cases.The spaciousness of the entrance hall is continued into the exhibition rooms. With straight, curved, tilted walls, with corridors, ramps and terraces, the sequence of rooms unfolds in a surprising and at the same time complex manner. The rooms run parallel with each other, they intersect, interlock, form cascade-like levels, meandering in various directions, just to meet again somewhere else. The lead in the lighting concept is played by natural light. In addition to that, complex luminous ceilings provide for natural rendering of colours and surfaces. All the technical components are integrated in the narrow roof girders (steel trusses clad with concrete elements): they carry the exterior grids serving for solar protection and the diffusion of light, as well as the two glass levels and the blinds. Uniform ambient lighting is ensured by the dimmable fluorescent lamps installed on both sides of the ribbed girders over their entire length, behind translucent acrylic glass scattering the light. The blinds and light output are controlled by the Luxmate Litenet lighting management system according to the position of the sun and depending on the lighting situation required. Additional spotlights for accent lighting, but also video projectors and light partitions can be installed on the trunking system integrated at the bottom of the girders. Zumtobel. The Light.
Museo specializes in contemporary/ modern as well as midcentury lighting. We offer an enviable range of British, Dutch, Scandinavian, Spanish and Italian design and more. Here are our lighting product lines at a glance.
The concept submitted by Zumtobel managed to win a public invitation to tender. The experience and know-how about the effects of light on sensitive artworks were decisive for the operators of the National Museum.
Featuring a collection of 46,000 objects of medieval or contemporary art, the Museum M acts as a bridge between history and the present. “Centuries old and vitally alive” – the tenet of the city of Leuven also holds true for the new museum: the spacious complex has several entrances opening it towards the historical city centre; it combines different architectural styles and eras, presenting itself as lively, multi-faceted art district.
Owner: Bavarian Administration of State-owned Palaces, Gardens and Lakes, Munich (DE) Electrical installations: Ambos, Füssen (DE)
Enormous savings Each luminaire can be addressed and dimmed as required via a tablet PC. The savings realised by the Cathedral Treasury thanks to the LED lighting solution installed by Zumtobel are formidable. Innovative LED technology provides for a reduction of energy consumption of some 70,000 kWh per year. As the new LED lighting releases considerably less heat into the room, energy savings will also be realised for the air conditioning system that constantly keeps the temperature at the Treasury at 18°C and relative humidity at 55%. Overall, savings of at least EUR 22,000 per year may be expected.
Some 400 LED spotlights create a festive atmosphere inside the Festival Theatre. For the wall lighting and brilliant accentuation of the art exhibits in the foyer, the LED spotlight IYON is used, which was developed in an earlier cooperation between Delugan Meissl and Zumtobel.
David Chipperfield is a long accepted member of the architecture elite. His unique approach to space, material and light allows him to create buildings with special clarity and tranquillity. Since the New Museum Berlin, his most extensive project so far, the Briton is regarded worldwide as a specialist for complex museum buildings.
For the important art collection Jumex, Chipperfield has now completed a museum in Mexico City that offers a convincing combination of flowing spaces and skilful lighting.Exquisite Wrapping for Art Formally, the building is reminiscent of industrial halls such as those that can be seen in Ecatapec on the outskirts of the city.
That is where the private collection – considered the greatest contemporary art in Latin America, with works by Jeff Koons, Andreas Gursky and Gabriel Orozco – was previously on exhibit in a hall on the company premises.
While the majority of the administration and the depot remained there, Chipperfield’s building in the city centre serves as a new satellite with an exhibit area of 4,000 square metres.The spatial separation of the two functional areas enhances the museum’s concept, in which flexibility plays a central role: a substantially streamlined administration area is located in the underground level of the four-storey building together with the temporary storage and operational areas.
All of the other levels are therefore entirely free for exhibition activities. The pleasant climatic conditions in Mexico City are reflected especially in the open character of the ground floor: outdoors and indoors blend together here, because the building was erected on a column structure that allows visitors to enter from all sides.
Extensive glass surfaces and large wooden portals that define the entrance open the view onto the surroundings.The lighting concept follows David Chipperfield’s feeling for the precise mixture of natural and artificial light.
The visitor’s glance is selectively guided outwards while the light sources on all floors carefully focus on the exhibition areas. The museum’s flexible spatial concept presented a special challenge with respect to the planning and implementation of an ideal light design.
In close cooperation with planning teams from Arup and Zumtobel, the Chipperfield staff created specific lighting scenarios for diverse exhibition situations. The goal was to configure a system that was efficient and easy to operate in-keeping with the simple character of the building.
The focus on the ground floor and the 1st floor is therefore on variable general lighting. Designed for events, conferences and workshops, these two storeys are illuminated by special ARCOS recessed ceiling luminaires.
They not only allow, a discreet, homogeneous installation, but also specific illumination of single areas. If there is a need for illumination of temporary exhibits or three-dimensional objects such as sculptures, LED downlights can be substituted for the ARCOS luminaires.
LED spotlight ARCOS The two upper floors are designed entirely as exhibition areas and are accordingly equipped with lighting technology. With a room height of five metres, the second upper floor can be divided by partition walls.
Daylight enters the room through a north facing window with access to the terrace, and textile curtains provide anti-glare protection while allowing an outside view. This level is additionally illuminated by a track system mounted in the ceiling that can be adapted to every conceivable exhibition requirement.
Adjustable spots can be regulated to provide both basic and accent lighting.
Thanks to Zumtobel’s tailor-made lighting solution, highly sensitive exhibits such as works on paper, for instance, can be displayed directly alongside room partitions where sculptures are illuminated. Illuminance levels can be individually adapted for each skylight as needed. Cus-tom-built Arcos LED projection spotlights with various optics can be plugged into sockets in the skylights in order to emphasise individual objects or pick out wall surfaces as required.
In total, more than 2500 Zumtobel luminaires were installed in the Montforthaus, including some 750 MFH-PANOS custom luminaires in various versions. However, Zumtobel was not only commissioned to develop a custom solution: the intensive collaboration of all those involved was also characterised by continuous project support and individual adaptation to the required scope. In total, 18 luminaire types by Zumtobel were installed in the entire Montforthaus, including LIGHT FIELDS evolution in the stairwell, ONDARIA at the coffee shop and CRAFT providing task light for stage lighting.
Architect: Richard Duplat und Dominique Brard (FR) Lighting design: Stéphanie Daniel (FR)
The Louvre Abu Dhabi in the Saadiyat Island cultural district is a universal museum of the Arab world, forming a compelling artistic connection between Eastern and Western art. For this purpose, works from all over the world will be showcased there – from prehistoric artefacts to contemporary highlights.
Yet the architecture itself also represents a spectacular masterpiece, for which French star architect Jean Nouvel has created a magical oasis of light. The architectural centrepiece is a giant circular dome with a diameter of 180 metres, which is mounted discreetly on four columns to give the impression that it is floating.
The ornamental ceiling structure filters the sunlight during the day and generates a rich series of lighting effects, similar to the way sunrays shine through the natural patterns formed by date palms in an oasis.
When the sun goes down, the lighting system from Zumtobel takes over and, conversely, makes the light shine artistically from the inside through the distinctive structure of the dome to the outside world.
Zumtobel achieved this impression by creating CHROMOSOME light, a customised solution designed specifically for the unique giant dome. CHROMOSOME light is a version of the CHIARO FT moisture-proof luminaire incorporating a special heat sink to cope with the high temperatures of Abu Dhabi.
Part of the light passes through the fully transparent luminaire housing, before being reflected by the ceiling and walls to generate a bright and pleasant spatial effect. Different lux values are used to achieve two results: a glowing impression when viewed from distance and welcoming daylight-like illumination below the actual dome.
The adjustable white lamps enable a range of different colour temperatures to be produced by around 4000 CHROMOSOME fittings that have been installed in the museum. Different lighting scenarios can therefore be generated, depending on the time of day or the particular conditions.
This process is fully automated thanks to a LUXMATE LITENET control system and a sky scanner, which has been programmed to monitor the natural daylight shining through the spectacular dome and then add the necessary dosage of artificial light.
The dome covers a series of art galleries, with 55 square buildings arranged like a medina – a traditional old town in the Arab world. This represented a special challenge for the lighting systems: the lux values within each gallery have to be carefully regulated in line with the sensitivity of the particular works of art.
The curators at the Louvre defined three levels for the exhibits: works of art with a light ceiling of 600,000 lux, 150,000 lux and 37,500 lux per year. This means that the pieces with an annual lighting limit of 600,000 lux can only be exposed to a maximum of 125 lux during operating hours.
This level falls to 22 lux for exhibits with a top yearly limit of 150,000 lux. Within the galleries, various other lighting solutions find their place: LIGHT FIELDS, HELISSA, CHIARO, DIAMO LED, PANOS infinity and PERLUCE provide application-specific lighting and optimal presentation of more than 620 exhibit objects throughout 6,400 square metres of space.
Zumtobel solved this issue by carefully devising two lighting control concepts, which make sure that the specific lux value in each gallery is not exceeded. The first system is an automatic daylight-dependent light and blind control that classifies the amount of light entering the museum from the outside into four categories, enabling a curator to select light shielding levels of 25%, 50%, 75% or 100%.
The smart blinds receive the required information from the daylight sensors. However, as more intensive “sunlight patches” can sometimes reach the works of art, special additional sensors have been placed directly next to the exhibits.
These components record the exact lux values that the pieces are exposed to and then precisely calculate the annual lux data. The sensors are set up to send out a warning if the prescribed limits are reached.
In this way example, the intelligent LUXMATE LITENET lighting management system from Zumtobel not only protects the works of art, but also delivers energy and cost savings through the smart integration of daylight sensors, motion detectors and time control.
Zumtobel lighting solutions were also used in other areas. In the Museography Gallery, the TECTON continuous-row LED lighting system was installed in the glass ceiling for emergency lighting, while TUBILUX is used for external emergency lighting.
SCUBA moisture-proof luminaires are used in the corridors and technical rooms, while AERO II provides lighting for the offices and control areas in the basement.
Light for Art and Culture (.pdf/9,3 MB) Light for Art and Culture Special 2016 (.pdf/3,1 MB)
Langbein Museum (.pdf/2,6 MB) MAK Design Labor (.pdf/2,5 MB) Museum Art & Cars (.pdf/1,5 MB) Museo del Duomo (.pdf/1,8 MB) Museum of Islamic Arts (.pdf/0,4 MB) Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium (.pdf/1,4 MB) Salsali Private Museum (.
pdf/0,4 MB) Zwinger Palace in Dresden (.pdf/1,8 MB)
The fibre network that had illuminated the historical objects already before adaptation of the lighting concept was maintained and used to illuminate the exhibits. However, the LV generators previously used were replaced by dimmable LED light engines. The new LED engines, specially developed for museums, exhibitions and art galleries, are about twice as bright as the former halogen solution.
The greatest concern of those in charge is the heavy burden on historical furniture, textiles and paintings caused by UV and IR radiation. In order to not interfere with the historical room impression, visible light sources should be avoided to the greatest possible extent. Another requirement is that existing points of installation or clamping devices must be used in order to avoid any impairment of the historical structure.
Owner: Eugenio Lopez, Mexico City (MX) Architect: David Chipperfield Architects, London (UK) Lighting design: Arup, London (UK) Execution planning: TAAU –Taller Abierto de Arquitectura y Urbanismo, Mexico City (MX)
Light as a creative design tool also plays an important role at the interfaces of the various divisions of the museum. “Portals of light” mark the entrances to the exhibition rooms. In this context, wide-area lighting modules act as door frames emphasising the transitions to the more quiet gallery rooms. Here, the modular CIELOS luminous ceiling provides uniform, diffuse ambient lighting, leaving the leading part to the art objects. The CIELOS modules are arranged depending on the respective floor plans either as linear continuous rows or in a square; they are controlled via the central LUXMATE lighting management system. As opposed to the wide-area lighting of the ceilings in the galleries, the access areas are illuminated by vertical light lines installed flush in the walls.Zumtobel. The Light.
Owner: Staatsbetrieb Sächsisches Immobilien- und Baumanagement (SIB), Dresden (DE) Architect: Exhibition: Holzer Kobler Architekturen GmbH, Zürich (CH); Building: Büro Lungwitz, Dresden (DE) Lighting design: Lichtvision Design & Engineering GmbH, Berlin (DE) Electrical consultants: Elektro Ing-Plan GmbH, Dresden (DE) Electrical installations: Elektro Dresden West, Dresden (DE)
PANOS INFINITY HEDERA CIELOS PERLUCE SCUBA LINARIA LUXMATE LITENET ONLITE ARTSIGN ONLITE COMSIGN II
the immediate vicinity of the Festival Theatre in Erl, which was established in 1957, the renowned architect team of Delugan Meissl has created a genuine gem. It is now the second stage for the Tyrolean summer festival productions in Erl and the only stage during the winter season.
The clear architectural language of the new building takes special advantage of the surrounding landscape. In the summer, the dark façade blends in discreetly with the forested Tyrolean mountainscape.
In the winter, when the bright Passion Play Theatre merges with the snowy landscape, the dark building is the star. Such a gem of a building, with a usable area of 7,000 m2 and more than 862 seats, demands an integral, innovative lighting concept that harmonises with the unusual form of the building – such as the distinctive accentuation of the wedge-shaped niches on the side walls of the large hall.
Owner: Department of Planning and Building Inspection, City of Feldkirch, Feldkirch (AT) Architect: Hascher Jehle Architektur, Berlin (DE) in collaboration with Mitiska Wäger Architekten, Bludenz (AT) Lighting design: Belzner Holmes / Light Design Engineering, Stuttgart (DE), Eschen (LI)
The concept behind the URBAN NATION MUSEUM FOR URBAN CONTEMPORARY ART in Berlin intrigues and excites with its fusion of diverse art forms and truly unique architecture. The impressive new venue has been shaped by architects from the GRAFT studio, who pooled their innovative and creative resources to transform a former residential and commercial building from the Gründerzeit period in the Berlin district of Schöneberg.
A differentiated lighting solution from Zumtobel has been realised throughout the museum. The exhibition rooms feature SUPERSYSTEM II mounted horizontally at the side of the route. Zumtobel used the lighting solution for the multi-storey rooms to place a strong focus on the uniform illumination of the walls in the exhibition spaces, while at the same time including the option to set effective lighting accents.
This is achieved with the help of the INTRO ceiling luminaire family. Extensive adjustment options mean that INTRO can be adapted to suit the different forms of architecture and thereby provide high-quality, tailored and efficient light throughout the rooms.
INTRO liteCarve®, a spotlight for vertical surfaces, and INTRO M, a brilliant LED accent spotlight with a high light output, both play a major role here. The liteCarve® reflector technology developed by Zumtobel facilitates the homogeneous and effective illumination of niches and walls, along with a precise and balanced right-angled light distribution, while the reflector itself makes sure In addition to the actual exhibition, visitors have the chance to appreciate numerous art installations even before they step inside, as the courtyard of the URBAN NATION Museum doubles as an event venue and presentation space for contemporary sculptures.
The harmonious solution from Zumtobel subtly raises the quality of time spent in this space – as well as offering flexible lighting for the changing compositions. SUPERSYSTEM outdoor Accent, a product from Zumtobel that incorporates three swivel-mounted LED tubes, create a perfect lighting condition in the courtyard.
Extremely demanding requirements in terms of conservational lighting In order to protect the highly sensitive exhibits, master builder Helmut Maintz had the Zumtobel luminaires that were eligible for the illumination of the exhibits tested extensively by experts of Photometrik GmbH, Darmstadt, in order to assess the effects of exposure to light for each exhibit. The focus was on an LED lighting solution that provides for effective and at the same time gentle accent lighting with minimum UV/IR radiation.
After several sample presentations and in close collaboration with the authority for the protection of monuments, the lighting designers of Bonn-based Licht Kunst Licht AG opted for the SUPERSYSTEM lighting system by Zumtobel. It has not only convinced them through its minimalist design language, but also on account of its versatile applications: on the one hand, it provides for uniform indirect illumination of the vaults. On the other hand, it creates diffuse ambient lighting in the room, with only the vaults, but not the transverse arches, being bathed in light.
After a complete restoration project lasting three years, the magnificent Hotel Biron, which has housed the Rodin Museum in Paris since 1919, reopened on 12th November 2015 – the 175th anniversary of the birth of the renowned French sculptor.
Richard Duplat, Chief Architect of Historic Monuments, led the historic renovation of the building, whilst revisions to the museography and the upgrading of standards throughout the museum were planned and implemented by the architect Dominique Brard of l’Atelier de l’Île.
The new Rodin Museum now presents the work of the sculptor in a more comprehensive manner, helping a wide audience gain a better understanding of the history, work and techniques of Auguste Rodin. The lighting concept imagined by Stéphanie Daniel is very much focused on the effective highlighting of the sculptures.
Once the IYON LED spotlight was chosen, thanks to its high CRI rating of 90 and compact form, Stéphanie Daniel worked together with engineers from Zumtobel to adapt the design of the product by replacing the glass diffuser and white louvres with a honeycomb material.
The patented reflector-lens system enables a precise photometric distribution. Based on the PI-LED technology, the Tunable White technology makes it possible to vary the colour temperature between 2600 K and 5300 K.
Finally, the lighting management programme was configured to include different scenarios specific to each spotlight, depending on the particular work of art, the season and the time of day.The spotlights all differ in intensity and around half of them vary in terms of colour temperature.
In this way, variations of natural light can be taken into account whilst still very much respecting the contrasts on the works. A photometric curve has been extrapolated for each luminaire and reflected in the LITENET lighting management system that operates the entire installation.
Thanks to this combination of considered planning and innovative technology, it has been possible to exquisitely preserve the subtle connection between daylight and artificial light throughout the course of the day and the different seasons.
» Lighting management » Emergency lighting and emergency lighting systems » Offices and Communication » Education and Science » Presentation and Retail » Hotel and Wellness » Art and Culture » Health and Care » Industry and Engineering » Outdoor and Architecture
The new Harpa Concert Hall rises up like a giant cut crystal in front of the jagged coast of Reykjavik harbour. The honeycomb elements of the façade make up a dazzling sea of multicoloured highlights. Refl ections on the water surface reinforce the association with a natural phenomenon, calling to mind mysterious northern lights. The sparkling Concert Hall and Conference Centre that now adorns the cosmopolitan capital of Iceland was designed by Henning Larsen Architects in cooperation with the Danish-Icelandic artist Olafur Eliasson, who was responsible for the characteristic appearance of the outer envelope. The area in front of the building is bathed in mystical blue light emanating from hidden sources of light, transmitted inside the building through glass fi elds. Olafur Eliasson and Zumtobel developed a special new type of luminaire, the shape and colour of which permits almost invisible integration in the prism structure of the façade, lighting it up with LEDs. Inside the crystalline outer envelope, visitors can expect to experience music in a new dimension. The large three-tiered concert hall with a blazing red interior is named after one of Iceland’s most beautiful volcanoes “Eldborg”, meaning “Fire Castle”.Zumtobel. The Light.
Owner: Museum of Technology, Vienna (AT) Lighting design: Pokorny Lichtarchitektur, Vienna (AT) Electrical installations: Brüder Gros, Vienna (AT)
Cooperative design process With the Jumex project, Zumtobel and David Chipperfield resumed the cooperative design process for several individual solutions: For the two exhibition levels the luminaire development team designed special features for ARCOS, including an extended arm, single sockets and LED versions with excellent colour rendering (Ra90) and a colour temperature of 4,000 K. They are also used in the 3rd upper floor for accent lighting. A continuous row lighting system provides for even illumination of the floor – because the complex roof geometry requires a detailed scenario for the interplay of natural and artificial light. Daylight enters this level through skylights in the sawtooth-like jags. The light is scattered by means of a multi-layer system of matte glass and semitransparent acrylic and is admitted into the room through matte white blinds.
For the Warsaw National Museum project, the clients clearly specified what they wanted: perfect presentation of artworks and compliance with maximum conservational demands, combined with a dramatic reduction of the carbon footprint.
The museum has now been fitted with a new LED-only lighting solution. In Poland, the collection is the largest of its kind in the sphere of art, and the very first featuring tunableWhite technology, which ensures that visitors can fully enjoy the artworks on display.
From the outset, the lighting concept was crucially important for the subterranean extension to the Städel Museum in Frankfurt on the Main. Zumtobel implemented a tailor-made custom lighting solution in collaboration with architects from schneider+schumacher and lighting de-signers from LichtKunstLicht.
This solution meets the very highest requirements from a con-servator’s viewpoint and ensures that light is an integral part of the architecture.
AERO II SCUBA TECTON LUXMATE LITENET DIAMO LIGHT FIELDS PERLUCE HELISSA PANOS INFINITY
Owner: Warsaw National Museum, Warsaw (PL) Electrical consultants: Zbigniew Kara, Radom (PL)
Owner: Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt (DE) Architect: schneider+schumacher, Frankfurt (DE) Lighting design: Licht Kunst Licht AG, Bonn/Berlin (DE) Electrical consultants: Delta-Tech, Weiterstadt (DE) Electrical installations: Imtech, Rüsselsheim (DE)
Owner: Comune di Milano, Milan (IT) Architect: Italo Rota, Fabio Fornasari, Milan (IT) Lighting design: Allessandro Perdetti, Mailand (IT) Electrical installations: Cooperativa Cellini Impianti Tecnologici, Prato (IT) Photos: Jürgen Eheim Competition and construction documentation: Gruppo Rota: Italo Rota, Fabio Fornasari, Emmanuele Auxilia, Paolo Montanari
Thanks to transparent façades and a glass dome in the foyer, daylight can enter the building’s large hall. The lighting design, too, which was created by the design studio of BELZNER HOLMES / LIGHT DESIGN ENGINEERING (LDE) specialising in architectural and stage lighting and technically implemented in collaboration with Zumtobel, follows the basic architectural idea of translucence. In order to meet the high demands of the multi-purpose building, LDE developed a lighting solution that can be adjusted to various application options. Thus, lighting scenes required for specific occasions can be created – from symposiums to concerts, from a focussed working atmosphere to stylish receptions.
Owner: Vienna Art History Museum, Vienna (AT) Architect: HG Merz, Stuttgart, Berlin (DE) Lighting design: Die Lichtplaner, Limburg (DE), Symetrys, Lustenau (AT) Electrical installations: IB Süd, Vienna (AT)
After a six year renovation, the Mathematical Physical Salon in Dresden’s Zwinger, reopened to the public in April 2013. The experiment gallery of Saxon’s electoral prince was founded in 1728 and today is the oldest museum within the building complex.
The new exhibit design by Holzer Kobler emphasises the architecture of the baroque building and offers nearly twice as much space for the fascinating collection of the historical scientific instruments.
In order to provide gentle accents for the precious exhibits, Zumtobel used ARCOS LED framing spotlights and ARCOS LED xpert as well as 200 compact miniature spots from the SUPERSYSTEM range. For ambient and room lighting, which was meant to be reduced to a minimum, 50 LED downlights of the PANOS infinity range were installed. Moreover, the entire Cathedral Treasury was equipped with presence detectors, in order to expose the art objects to artificial lighting during brief periods only; the light is turned off automatically in empty rooms.
These 195 skylights with diameters of 1.5 to 2.5 m form openings in the self-supporting, slightly domed ceiling of the subterranean hall. They allow daylight to enter the exhibition space below and are also used as a source of artificial lighting with a ring of LED elements that is fitted with warm (2700 K) and cool white (5000 K) LEDs– a custom solution developed by Zumtobel in collaboration with LichtKunstLicht lighting designers and schnei-der+schumacher architects. When it is cloudy, and in the evening and at night, these LEDs ensure that paintings and exhibits are uniformly illuminated.
Measurement of lighting of Pablo Picasso‘s “Harlekin” (1916) at the Lindau Town Museum (.pdf/1,8 MB) The visual perception of artworks at the National Museum of San Matteo (Pisa, Italy)(.pdf/0,7 MB)
The clients were particularly impressed by the compact dimensions and UV-free light of SUPERSYSTEM. Architecturally speaking, the LED lighting system is very discreet, while setting highly attractive accents – even from a greater distance. Owing to different optical attachments, the LED spotlights generate varying beam patterns with only 2.5 W. The magnificent colours in the cupola of the Throne Room are illuminated impressively by TEMPURA LED spotlights. By choosing colour temperatures between warm (3000 K) and cool light (6500 K), details can be emphasised to optimum effect, and those in charge at the museum can always modify the lighting according to requirements.Zumtobel. The Light.
“Our task was to find an integral lighting solution for the complex requirements, among others, to lighting quality, colour rendering and lighting based on conservational aspects. Our ability to develop custom solutions and the co-operative partnership with lighting designers and archi-tects enabled us to create this special LED lighting solution. By combining intelligent control with state-of-the-art LED technology we were able to develop an absolutely unique and flexible lighting concept that allows to provide the best light at any time for unlimited enjoyment of art.” Reinhardt Wurzer, Head of International Projects, Zumtobel Lighting
Architect: Jean Nouvel Photos: Louvre Abu Dhabi: Roland Halbe, Marc Domage, Mohamed Somji
A further characteristic element of the new lighting solution is the interplay of daylight and artificial light. Thanks to the integrated DALI unit, SUPERSYSTEM is compatible with diverse lighting management systems. The spotlights can therefore be controlled in groups for adjustment to the prevailing light situation and to the ideal luminous intensity for the particular exhibit constellations.
The Aachen Treasury contains a unique collection of treasures from the history of Aachen Cathedral, where the Roman-German kings were crowned throughout many centuries. In 1978, due to its unique significance, Aachen Cathedral was the first German cultural monument to be entered into the list of UNESCO World Cultural Heritage sites.
Thanks to the addition of a new building and the associated refurbishment of the original building dating back to 1908, the LWL Museum in Münster has become one of Germany’s largest art museums. “Art needs daylight,” says Hermann Arnhold, director of the museum; a principle that not only holds true for the new building: the historical building is also characterised by a spacious courtyard, surrounded by a portico on two levels.
Within the scope of this refurbishment, a new lighting solution had to be found for the heritage-protected arcades.
The Montforthaus in Feldkirch (Vorarlberg) is a venue for events such as concerts, trade fairs, congresses or symposiums. The new multi-purpose building is the result of a competition advertised by the municipality of Feldkirch and replaces the original Montforthaus.
After a planning and construction period of five years, the culture and congress centre was inaugurated in January 2015.
Efficient lighting solutions for technical exhibitionsThe Vienna Museum of Technology is the only national museum in Austria which is devoted to the history of engineering and natural sciences. The entire lighting system in the Museum of Technology was upgraded as part of a project called “Light & Climate”.
The museum’s installed load has been reduced by 70 % due to renovation.The new lighting concept provides a combination of direct and indirect lighting designed to improve lighting quality in the museum.
The indirect lighting is housed in architecturally sophisticated lighting channels and achieves 40–50 lux on the actual object illuminated. The lighting is dimmable. Additional accent lighting is provided by ARCOS spotlights fitted with 20 W or 35 W HIT lamps.
Impressive energy savings were realised here compared with the previous lighting system, which used 100 W halogen spotlights.A total of 1,400 ARCOS spotlights have been installed over the three floors of the Museum of Technology.
One major advantage of the new lighting is that it produces less heat; this improves room climate conditions drastically, especially in summer.Zumtobel. The Light.
IYON SUPERSYSTEM CARDAN LED MICROS PANOS INFINITY SLOTLIGHT II
Large exhibit pieces are presented free-standing, while small and especially sensitive objects are protected in glass showcases. In view of this, the lighting solution plays an important role: it accompanies the visitor through the galleries and pavilions, facilitates orientation and also highlights the objects in a targeted and gentle manner, allowing them to be experienced authentically.A significant change within the scope of the renovation was the decision to use a 100-percent LED lighting solution. The minimalistic LED SUPERSYSTEM spots are integrated discreetly and feature low power consumption and outstanding light quality. The fact that the new generation of LED luminaires emits less heat and their light is virtually free of IR and UV radiation fulfils the stringent conservational requirements of the museum. Excellent colour rendering of more than Ra 90 allows visitors to experience the natural materials and colours of the exhibit pieces. Based on specific lighting requirements SUPERSYSTEM was installed in all of the exhibit rooms and in the public areas as flushmounted or surface-mounted ceiling luminaires or as pendant luminaires.
Architect: Henning Larsen Architects, Kopenhagen (DK) Lighting design: Studio Olafur Eliasson, Berlin (DE)
At night and in the case of reduced light intensity, the ZX2 continuous row lighting system installed in the skylights and the configured ARCOS spotlights, with special lenses and filters, ensure optimal light quality for homogeneous illumination of the exhibits. The flexibility of the configuration here also allows alteration and division of the spatial dramaturgy of the total of 860 square metres, with no loss of the sense of spaciousness. Additional continuous row luminaires are installed for added, accented illumination of single objects in the room. Control of the respective luminaires in the gallery and office rooms is achieved by means of the lighting management system LUXMATE BASIC.
LouvreAbu Dhabi Rodin-MuseumParis, France Urban Nation MuseumBerlin, Germany Elbe Philharmonic Hall Hamburg, Germany Warsaw National MuseumWarsaw, Poland MontforthausFeldkirch, Austria LWL MuseumMünster, Germany Cathedral TreasuryAachen, Germany Mathematical-Physical Salon in ZwingerDresden, Germany Museo JumexMexiko City, Mexiko Kunstkammer ViennaVienna, Austria Städel MuseumFrankfurt on the Main, Germany Festspielhaus ErlErl, Austria Museo del NovecentoMilan, Italy Vienna Museum of TechnologyVienna, Austria MAXXIRome, Italy Museum MLeuven, Belgium Neuschwanenstein CastleFüssen, Germany HARPA Reykjavik Reykjavik, Iceland
Direct lighting can also be added via fixed miniature LED lighting heads. The flexible lighting heads allow for adjustment of beam angles to the current exhibition by simply changing the optics. Thanks to SUPERSYSTEM’s maximum compatibility, spotlights that had been used by the museum already before may also be integrated in the track segments installed at the bottom, if required to provide additional accents for art objects presented at the walls or in the room. Thanks to DALI lighting control, the staff of the museum is not only able to easily control both the indirect and the direct light components separately, but also to individually adjust each group of mini-LED heads.
For a long time, the Palazzo dell’Arengario near Milan Cathedral lead a miserable existence. After being converted into the museum of 20th century Italian art, it now shines in new splendour. The austere building from the 1930s was turned into a multi-faceted art museum. A tour of the collection, which comprises 400 works – from futurism up to Arte Povera -, is also a walk through the city’s history: city views that are deliberately positioned like paintings resemble still lifes.
Owner: Aachen cathedral chapter, master builder Helmut Maintz, Aachen (DE) Lighting design: Plan Ing, Ralf Wolters, Aachen (DE) Electrical installations: Elektro Mücher, Alsdorf (DE)
Owner: Autonoom Gemeentebedrijf Museum, Leuven (BE) Architect: Stéphane Beel Architecten, Ghent (BE) Electrical consultants: RCR studiebureau, Herent (BE) Electrical installations: Spie NV, Zaventem (BE) Photos: Toon Grobet
Zumtobel accentuates the magical atmosphere of the Elbe Philharmonic Hall in Hamburg with a tailored lighting solution that uniquely brings the heart of this spectacular concert hall to life. Zumtobel has referenced the architectural philosophy of combining old and new by working closely with the Swiss architects Herzog & de Meuron and the glass designer Detlef Tanz from Wegberg to carefully craft 1200 hand-blown glass ball luminaires.
Paying homage to the nearby River Elbe, the fittings appear like light-filled water bubbles emerging from the undulating acoustic ceiling. The combination of traditional craftsmanship and modern LED technology made the development of this lighting solution a special challenge for Zumtobel.
The result is a custom-made luminaire with an especially attractive appearance, which uses a colour temperature of 2700 K to create an emotive atmosphere in the room. The ball fittings are seamlessly dimmable via DMX controls and fully compatible with HDTV, meaning that video recordings made in the concert hall are completely flicker-free.
The Plaza features a further 870 machine-made plastic ball luminaires. These LED solutions are grouped in diamond shapes and provide pleasant warm-white general illumination. Zumtobel developed another customised luminaire specifically for the foyer and the cloakroom in front of the concert hall.
This hybrid product incorporates a hand-crafted fluorescent fitting with an RGB LED module, which can be separately controlled using a DALI interface. Depending on the particular event, this means that the 750 luminaires can be individually adjusted to create poignant effect lighting.
Zumtobel has also used a number of established standard luminaires in the Elbe Philharmonic Hall. Track-mounted DIAMO and VIVO spotlights controlled by LITECOM provide general illumination in the Störtebecker restaurant.
Furthermore, PANOS infinity guarantees homogenous basic lighting in the hallways and conference rooms of the Westin Hotel.
ARCOS boasts technical features developed especially for this application: David Chipperfield designed the extremely compact spotlight for Zumtobel in 2008 and revised it in 2013. The architect contributed his extensive experience in building museums to the development of a technologically innovative design luminaire for the most stringent conservational requirements. Testing of the luminaires in the room was especially important to him. Also at the focus: the perspective of the user, which Chipperfield also included.
Under the aegis of Ralf Wolters, the Plan Ing Aachen engineers’ studio, a Zumtobel Partner within the Lighting Competence Program, was commissioned with adapting the lighting concept. The requirements were complex: first of all, the lighting concept was expected to substantially reduce operating costs. Then, special requirements as to cost effectiveness and observance of certain payback periods were associated with a funding commitment by the federal government. At the same time, the concept was supposed to take account of the latest findings in terms of conservation, which meant that daylight was to be excluded from the Cathedral Treasury completely, with ambient lighting being reduced to a minimum. The client also wanted the renovation to be carried out within two months, with the Treasury remaining open to visitors, which required a high degree of flexibility to keep inconveniences for visitors to a minimum.
Owner: Italian Ministry of Culture, Rome (IT) Architect: Zaha Hadid Architects, Zaha Hadid and Patrik Schumacher, London (GB) Lighting design: Equation Lighting, London (GB) Electrical installations: Electrical installations: Ciel Spa, Rome (IT) Electrical consultants: Max Fordham and Partners, OK Design Group, London (GB)
Although the facade has hardly been changed (only the bricked up round arched windows on the middle floor were glazed), the tower-like building seems like a transparent shell, as if backlit, allowing glimpses into its new interior. Behind the large glazed surfaces, Lucio Fontana’s “Struttura al neon” lighting installation sends out rays of light onto the cathedral square.
The client opted to use Zumtobel’sLuxmate Professional lighting control range to ensure ra-tional use of daylight: the lighting management system controls the use of artificial lighting from the skylights depending on the amount of available daylight and the required or maximum lighting levels, according to specifications, for the exhibits that are on display.
“We highly appreciate the excellent collaboration among all the contractors involved. By observing conservational and energy efficiency aspects, we manage to combine the past and the future at their most beautiful here at Aachen Cathedral Treasury and to preserve the Cathedral’s treasures for posterity,” master builder Maintz comments on the result.
“The way we designed the building, we made sure that all benefits the Städel ensemble had before would be maintained. In addition, the new rooms are spectacularly visible from the street thanks to the domed lawn and the skylights. From a technical point of view, sustainabil-ity is ensured by modern air-conditioning technology and above all the lighting system based on LED technology and a large daylight component.” Michael Schumacher, Architect, schneider+schumacher
Filigree versatile lighting systemSUPERSYSTEM – a convincing productFlexibility and adaptability are fundamentally important for temporary exhibitions and for the arrangement of sculptures and objects in exhibition rooms. Additionally, the ability to integrate the lighting solution into the existing structures plays a major role, for the historical space was meant to be interfered with to the least possible degree by another architectural element.
Instead of monotonous, isolated rooms, the architect has designed an extremely varied museum tour that may be used flexibly, with spacious, high rooms, and then again smaller, lower ones. The lighting concept pays tribute to the character of the individual rooms, responding with great sensitivity to their specific spatial characteristics. Thus, the officially protected art rooms of the existing buildings are illuminated by delicate SUPERSYSTEM tracks floating below the ancient wooden ceiling, suspended on almost invisible cords. Vertical wallwashers provide for flexible, expressive accent lighting of the objects on display, as required. For the general, compact and flexible lighting, 3-phase tracks with spotlights are used. In the clearly more spacious White-Cube rooms of the new building, TEMPURA spotlights incorporating LED technology have been installed on TECTON trunking. The spotlights’ colour temperature can be adjusted in the range of 2700 to 6500 Kelvin according to requirements. Moreover, by using LED light, any impairment of the art objects through IR or UV radiation can be avoided. Zumtobel. The Light.
“What is required for a project to succeed is undisturbed and challenging communication be-tween manufacturer and designer that can sometimes even become passionate on a matter. The outstanding result shows how good this has worked for us.” Andreas Schulz, Managing Director, Licht Kunst Licht
Owner: Association of municipalities of Westphalia-Lippe, Münster (DE) Architect: Staab Architekten GmbH, Berlin (DE) Lighting design: Licht Kunst Licht AG, Bonn/Berlin (DE) Electrical installations: Pape & Böhm GmbH & Co.
KG Elektrotechnik, Münster (DE) Photos: Marcus Ebener
Owner: Strabag, Lukas Lang GmbH, Vienna (AT) Architect: Delugan Meissl Associated Architects, Vienna (AT)
SUPERSYSTEM ARCOS PANOS INFINITY ONLITE ARTSIGN ONLITE RESCLITE
After a long trial and testing phase, the client opted for a customised lighting solution by Zumtobel. The basic idea behind it is to be able to dim the LED luminaires down to 0 percent without flickering to ensure HD quality for TV broadcasts from the Montforthaus. In collaboration with its offices in Stuttgart and Liechtenstein as well as Zumtobel, LDE designed a custom solution for the various requirements of this project. The new design was based on the modular PANOS infinity LED downlight range.
The right light for any exhibit, thanks to tunableWhiteWith artworks from ancient to modern times on display, the demands in terms of lighting could not be more varied at the National Museum. Thanks to built-in tunableWhite technology, the light colour can be adjusted to the material, colour and character of each individual artwork. Colour temperature adjustments can be made either manually at the luminaire unit or via the lighting management system. The lighting solution for the entire building is based on LEDs in combination with the BUTLER XT lighting management system including presence detectors – ensuring considerable energy savings.Zumtobel. The Light.
The new extension of the Städel Museum provides approximately 3,000 m2 of exhibition space underneath the garden of the existing building. The hall is up to 8.20 m high and is spanned by an elegantly curved, seemingly weightless ceiling. Although it is an underground structure, the new extension is apparent on the surface, too. Visitors can walk around in the museum’s slightly domed garden, which is now covered by a remarkable pattern of circular skylights illu-minating the new museum space.
“This collection is one of the most important things I will exhibit in the course of my career.” HG Merz, architect and museum designer With the technical aspects covered by scientists and engineers, it is important for HG Merz to consider things from the visitors’ point of view as well when designing such an exhibition. He welcomes the opportunities arising from the new media, so that the stories behind the exhibits can be told, the exhibition thus becoming accessible at several levels.“The magic of these rooms, which are outstanding in terms of architecture, is highly dependent on light.”He puts himself in the visitors’ shoes also when it comes to lighting. Lighting design is a decisive factor in maintaining the magic of the exhibits and the rooms. Hence, a variety of lighting scenes are used, taking into account the existing architecture of the Kunstkammer and emphasising its expressive ceiling design, colours and materials, on the one hand, and setting the exhibits themselves centre-stage, on the other hand. Beside the layout of the rooms, which had originally not been used as a classic cabinet of curiosities, and their furniture, the biggest challenge was the multitude and heterogeneity of the exhibits.“Light should be visible.”While the focus with respect to the lighting solution developed for the exhibition showcases was primarily on remaining unobtrusive, the requirements for a chandelier comprised far more aspects. It should not only bring light to a room, but serve other purposes as well. The Starbrick by Eliasson has made it possible to integrate a work of art that meets all requirements and at the same time adds another, more contemporary feel to the rooms. “The success of this project results from the high willingness displayed by all those involved to approach one another and make compromises in order to bring out the best as a team.” Dr. Franz Kirchweger, curator of the Vienna Museum of Art History The new presentation of the Kunstkammer involved a certain amount of tension, since the historical 19th century building had never really been adapted to the requirements of a modern museum, so that a number of adjustments to the building’s structure were required. Moreover, the presentation was to equally meet scientific, conservational and aesthetic requirements and nevertheless cast a spell over visitors. In collaboration with HG Merz, an exhibition concept was developed that takes historical architecture into account, but also creates new accents and thematic priorities in terms of content, so that visitors will be able to see the valuable exhibits from a different angle.“Artificial lighting is to enable visitors to experience the exhibits as authentically as possible: wood that looks like wood, a piece of rock crystal that does not just look like glass, but is resplendent in all its multifacetedness.”The aim to stick to the original idea of the building as a daylight-based museum raised a number of lighting design issues. Moreover, the building’s architecture with its high ceilings and very spacious halls required an innovative approach to create a pleasant and inviting atmosphere. Thanks to installation of the chandeliers, general room lighting could be achieved that serves as high-quality functional lighting as well. In particular the sculptures, which due to their three-dimensional quality present completely other challenges to the lighting system than paintings, benefit from these conditions.During the design stage, when a decision had to be made regarding the light sources, it was already foreseeable that very good results could be achieved with LEDs. Thanks to the technological progress made in the past years, the results even exceed any expectations: the materials and colours of the exhibits can be authentically experienced and are enhanced to optimum extent; at the same time, the LEDs meet all requirements in terms of conservation and sustainability. “Throughout the history of art, existing laws and the creation of reality have been questioned many a time – this is why the Starbrick fits perfectly into the Kunstkammer.” Olafur Eliasson Art and industrial design have more in common than you would think. Art is a language the ambition and quality of which depend on the things expressed with it. For Eliasson, industrial design is above all a method to make an artistic statement. The Starbrick is a work of art that is detached from the elitist standing of art and definitely more accessible via the principle of reproduction. As a system assembled from individual modules, the Starbrick is an artwork that will never be finished and can always be formed into new shapes. Hence, the Starbrick is an element that can be combined and added, but also a luminaire that is part of a bigger ensemble. For the chandeliers installed in the Kunstkammer in Vienna, the Starbrick’s lighting intensity level was slightly increased due to the high ceilings, but their shape has remained unchanged. In accordance with the historical premises, a highly individual Starbrick configuration has been created.About the Starbrick Four individual works of lighting art, the Masterpieces, have been created in close collaboration between Zumtobel and international architects, designers and artists. The Starbrick is a versatile lighting module. Its basic structure is a cube, on whose six surfaces additional cubes have been placed at an angle of 45°. These additional cubes serve as connectors to combine several Starbrick modules.
The former academy building and the Vander Kelen-Mertens Palais – both buildings were integrated into the Museum M – have been renovated carefully according to the rules of the preservation of monuments, and they were linked with the modern building via a bridge. A total of 6,500 square metres of exhibition area are spread over this labyrinth-like museum complex. While the colourful splendour of ages long past is perceptible in the ancient building, in relatively small rooms with wooden ceilings and wall panelling, the new building is all sober minimalism.
The Museum is a walk-in synthesis of the arts in itself, enhanced by a unique and multifaceted art collection that adds to the success and fascination of the Kunstkammer Wien. With respect to the new presentation, the main challenge was to create a contemporary lighting design that remains in the background and lets the exhibits take centre stage.Hence, a collection that had not been open to the public for eleven years can now be experienced in all its modernness, multifacetedness and absolute quality. The intelligent integration of daylight results in softly modulated light, so that the collection is presented in a different lighting scene in summer than in winter, and visitors will perceive it differently in the morning light than in the evening.“The atmosphere conveyed by the 16th century exhibits finds its continuation in the Starbrick chandeliers.”As functionality was a prerequisite for installation of the chandeliers, the Starbrick had to be modified for the actual room situation, in collaboration with Olafur Eliasson. Of course, Ms Haag and her team were fully aware of the risk to polarise when integrating a contemporary element into a historical artwork complex. But after all, the Starbrick reflects many developments that the exhibits have already gone through. Like the 16th century exhibits, it represents a combination of cutting-edge technology, art, absolute perfection and an attractive appearance, not least because its crystalline shape is also found in many exhibits. Therefore, at a room height of six metres, a second level of artworks was created, but in contrast to the exhibits, these artworks do fulfil a function, too.“It was clear to us that in order to present the best collection, we wanted to collaborate only with the best partners as well.”Obviously, sustainable preservation of the exhibits had been given top priority. Against this background, the decision in favour of gentle and authentic LED lighting was a matter of course. Beside the ambition of creating an innovative and future-oriented solution able to llast for decades, in contrast to a temporary exhibition, collaboration in this project was above all characterised by unwavering trust in the partners’ skills and their commitment to quality without any compromises.
Architect: Herzog & de Meuron (CH) Lighting design: Ulrike Brandi Licht, Hamburg (DE)
King Louis II would have been delighted. The sovereign, who had always been very open-minded about innovative technologies, had a number of sensational technological advancements implemented during the construction of Neuschwanstein Castle. With its new LED lighting system, Neuschwanstein Castle has ventured a step into the twenty-first century. In this way the State Apartments are illuminated efficiently and, above all, gently. All areas open to the public are gradually going to be fitted with individual LED lighting solutions.
ARCOS SLOTLIGHT II LINARIA PANOS INFINITY PANOS ZX2 MICROS SCUBA LUXMATE BASIC/DIMLITE
To achieve this new openness, the building was mostly gutted. Now, a ramp spirals upwards leading visitors to the exhibition rooms. The glass facade surrounding the ramp offers insights and views that change with every step you take, like in a film sequence. Point-shaped luminaires track the curved surfaces on two levels: downlights recessed into the ceiling mark the way, illuminating the ramp’s surface, while small LED spots on the balustrade irradiate blue/green light into the interior.
The MFH-PANOS custom solution is a unique innovation in the sphere of architectural luminaires worldwide, featuring continuous dimming from 100 to 0 per cent. Compared to previous standard products, MFH-PANOS is able to clear the last hurdle of 10 to 0 per cent with a soft transition and thus without flickering. In order to be able to select the perfect lighting scene for every occasion, MFH-PANOS allows to adjust the colour temperature variably from warm to cool white. The ratio of cool and warm white light can be controlled individually, depending on the requirements, via separate DMX or DALI channels. According to the required reaction rate, the installed downlights of 28, 30 or 40 W are equipped with DALI or DMX control, making it possible to address every luminaire individually.
The LED spotlight is perfectly suited for accent lighting. Instead of 1100 halogen spotlights with an installed load of 100 W each, today 970 ARCOS spotlights featuring an installed load of 20 W each and 120 spotlights with 25 W each set the lighting stage for the large number of paintings and sculptures. One of the most decisive criteria concerned colour rendering, which was supposed to exceed RA 90. ARCOS mastered this requirement with a colour rendering index of RA 94 at a constant luminous flux, independent of the colour temperature, and considerably lower energy consumption than conventional solutions. Moreover, the nearly UV- and IR-free light emitted by LEDs is gentle on the exhibits.