Led Light Bulbs And Led Light Fittings

tech lighting Led Light Bulbs And Led Light Fittings

tech lighting Led Light Bulbs And Led Light Fittings

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Lumens are the only accurate measurement of a light bulb’s brightness. For instance, an LED bulb may consume far less energy – or wattage – than a halogen equivalent, but still have the same level of brightness (lumens).

This can vary according to the type of fitting chosen, but the LED remains the leader when it comes to efficiency.

To qualify for Energy Star certification, LED lighting products must pass a variety of tests to prove that the products will display the following characteristics:

LED efficiency and life span drop at higher temperatures, which limits the power that can be used in lamps that physically replace existing filament and compact fluorescent types. Thermal management of high-power LEDs is a significant factor in design of solid state lighting equipment. LED lamps are sensitive to excessive heat, like most solid state electronic components. LED lamps should be checked for compatibility for use in totally or partially enclosed fixtures before installation as heat build-up could cause lamp failure and/or fire.[citation needed]

COB LED chips are the brightest out of the three, typically being able to pack nine or more diodes onto a single chip.

We cover everything from Kelvins to Lumens, Voltage to Wattage, so you can make the savvy switch to LED lighting with complete confidence.

You now have everything you need to make informed purchases of LED light bulbs and spotlights. You can view our LED light bulbs here, and LED spotlights here.

Philips Lighting ceased research on compact fluorescents in 2008 and began devoting the bulk of its research and development budget to solid-state lighting.[15] On 24 September 2009, Philips Lighting North America became the first to submit lamps in the category to replace the standard 60 W A-19 “Edison screw fixture” light bulb,[16] with a design based on their earlier “AmbientLED” consumer product. On 3 August 2011, DOE awarded the prize in the 60 W replacement category to a Philips’ LED lamp after 18 months of extensive testing.[17]

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Several companies offer LED lamps for general lighting purposes. The technology is improving rapidly and new energy-efficient consumer LED lamps are available.[46][47]

Traditionally, it was only older fluorescent lighting that was available with a filament. The filament being the flame-like column that glistens from the centre of the bulb and is largely responsible for the actual light it casts.

Halogen LED Lifespan 2,000 hours 25,000 hours Consumption 50W 5W KWh consumed over 10,000hrs 500 50 Typical cost of electricity over 10,000hrs £75.00 £7.50

Another popular bulb across the West is the B22, or Bayonet, light bulb fitting. It measures 22mm in diameter and is often found hidden behind lamps and lamp shades.

When people are renovating their homes, or looking to upgrade their lighting, the filament bulb remains incredibly popular.

Globe-shaped bulbs are larger than most and are ideal for use in open areas. They look fantastic when suspended from high ceilings and fitted within a bare pendant lamp, so the globe is fully exposed.

Now they’re available in a variety of fittings to suit your needs, so everyone can benefit from energy-saving LEDs. And you often don’t even need the help of an electrician to fit them.

R50 bulbs – also known as reflector bulbs – feature an E14 Edison screw fitting, but are shaped differently at the top to accommodate different lamp fixtures and uses.

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The LED lighting industry is predicted to explode over the next few years.

However, LED spotlights are far more versatile. You can still get narrow beam angles which are ideal for decorative areas, but you can also get wider beam angles of 60-110 degrees that are perfect for lighting-up those larger areas, such as living spaces and dining rooms.

In keeping with the long life claimed for LED lamps, long warranties are offered. However, currently there are no standardized testing procedures set by the Department of Energy in the United States to prove these assertions by each manufacturer.[67] A typical domestic LED lamp is stated to have an “average life” of 15,000 hours (15 years at 3 hours/day), and to support 50,000 switch cycles.[68]

Our product experts have compiled this comprehensive guide to help you find the perfect LED bulb or spotlight for your needs.

The two most common types of SMD chip sizes are SMD 3528 and SMD 5050 – the former is 3.5mm wide and the latter is 5mm.

No one wants to find out the light globe they bought is the wrong one and doesn’t fit. Thankfully, all light bulbs have a code which describes their base (connection) and shape. So look out for codes like MR16, E27, B22, T8, or PAR38 on your existing light bulbs. Or, check the spares cupboard, and you’ll be most of the way to buying the correct product. See our related blog post for more information: crack your light bulb codes.

They’re available in many shapes, sizes and fittings, and also have all the energy and money saving capabilities of LED technology.

If you’re fortunate enough to own a chandelier, then candle shape bulbs are perfect. They’re elegant and compact, and are also available in a frosted finish, which is perfect for use around Christmas and you want something impressive for when friends and family are around.

Considered as electric energy converters, all these existing lamps are inefficient, emitting more of their input energy as waste heat than as visible light. Global electric lighting in 1997 consumed 2016 terawatthours of energy. Lighting consumes roughly 12% of electrical energy produced by industrialized countries. The increasing scarcity of energy resources, and the environmental costs of producing energy, particularly the discovery of global warming due to carbon emitted by the burning of fossil fuels, which are the largest source of energy for electric power generation, created an increased incentive to develop more energy-efficient electric lights.

The terms are often used interchangeably, and even by the same manufacturer! So the safest thing to do here is to look for the actual colour code (XXXX K) – which we specify on all our lighting product pages. If you want to read more on this topic see here: which colour temperature is best? 

By 2010 mass installations of LED lighting for commercial and public uses were becoming common. LED lamps were used for a number of demonstration projects for outdoor lighting and LED street lights. The United States Department of Energy made several reports available on the results of many pilot projects for municipal outdoor lighting,[26] and many additional streetlight and municipal outdoor lighting projects soon followed.[27]

They measure 27mm, which is the same as a halogen or incandescent E27, so you can simply pop an LED E27 into an existing E27 fitting – it’s completely hassle-free.

As mentioned before, LED spotlights and bulbs are able to cast different shades of white light, giving you more options when renovating your home or upgrading your lighting.

In 2009 the exceptionally large Christmas tree standing in front of the Turku Cathedral in Finland was hung with 710 LED lamps, each using 2 watts. It has been calculated that these LED lamps paid for themselves in three and a half years, even though the lights run for only 48 days per year.[24]

Through the Philips Hue app, you can: • Switch bulbs off and on remotely and from anywhere in the world • Choose from 16 millions shades of white light to really set the mood across multiple rooms in your home • Dim the lights to create the perfect ambience • Control up to 50 bulbs from a single area • Set-up motion sensor technology to save even more money on your energy bills

LED chips require controlled direct current (DC) electrical power and an appropriate circuit as an LED driver is required to convert the alternating current from the power supply to the regulated voltage direct current used by the LEDs.

An assortment of LED lamps commercially available as of 2010 as replacements for screw-in bulbs, including floodlight fixtures (left), reading light (center), household lamps (center right and bottom), and low-power accent light (right) applications.

The screw on an E14 bulb is identical to an E27 but for one thing: it’s smaller, measuring just 14mm in diameter, which is why they’re often used in small fittings for decorative or purely practical purposes – such as chandeliers and appliances.

These chips represent the latest development in LED technology.

In January 2009, it was reported that researchers at University of Cambridge had developed an LED lamp that costs £2 (about $3 U.S.), is 12 times as energy efficient as a tungsten lamp, and lasts for 100,000 hours.[21]

Thanks to the ever-growing variety of styles available, interior designers are not just taking into account the quality of light that they use in their designs, but also the shape and style of the bulb itself.

LEDs are also becoming a favourite of interior designers, both amateur and professional alike. This is because of how many colour options you get with LED that you simply don’t get with traditional spotlights and bulbs.

LED Flashlight replacement bulb (left), with tungsten equivalent (right)

What does this mean for LED lighting? Well, firstly, it improves the brightness-to-energy output, thus increasing lighting efficiency. This also means they can be used across a wide range of different types of lighting.

Traditionally if you wanted to buy a brighter bulb you’d shop for a higher wattage.

LEDs, as their name suggests operate as diodes, run on direct current (DC), whereas mains current is alternating current (AC) and usually at much higher voltage than the LED can accept. Although low voltage LED lamps are available LED lamps can contain a circuit for converting the mains AC into DC at the correct voltage. These circuits contain rectifiers, capacitors and may have other active electronic components, which may or may not permit the lamp to be dimmed.

In 2008 Sentry Equipment Corporation in Oconomowoc, Wisconsin, US, was able to light its new factory interior and exterior almost solely with LEDs. Initial cost was three times that of a traditional mix of incandescent and fluorescent lamps, but the extra cost was recovered within two years via electricity savings, and the lamps should not need replacing for 20 years.[15] In 2009 the Manapakkam, Chennai office of the Indian IT company, iGate, spent ₹3,700,000 (US$80,000) to light 57,000 sq ft (5,300 m2) of office space with LEDs. The firm expected the new lighting to pay for itself within 5 years.[23]

LED Downlights – includes MR16 & GU10 halogen globe replacements as well as integrated LED downlights, and more. LED Bulbs & Fittings – includes regular Edison screw and bayonet bulbs, candle bulbs, spot lights, oyster light fittings, and more.

LED Tubes, Battens & Panels – includes LED options to replaces old fluro tubes, as well as complete office / ceiling light fittings.  LED Sensor Lights – includes sensor light bulbs & tubes, security light fitting with integrated PIR sensor, and more.

LED High Bays & Floods – includes outdoor rated LED floodlights, streetlight, and warehouse lights known as ‘high bays.’ LED Emergency Lights – includes battery back up lights called ‘spitfires’, EXIT signs, and more.

When you’re next at an inner-city bar, cast your eyes around and you’ll see a range of glistening filament bulbs hanging exposed from industrial-style pendant fittings. It’s a look that’s become very much in vogue.

G4s are similar to G9s, and are often used in appliances or smaller light fixtures. Like with MR16 spotlights, G4s may require a specialised LED compatible transformer if you’re switching over from halogen. Ceiling lights

Newer light fittings designed for LED lamps, or indeed with long-lived LEDs built-in, have been coming into use as the need for compatibility with existing fittings diminishes. Such lighting does not require each bulb to contain circuitry to operate from mains voltage.

Brightness is equal to or greater than existing lighting technologies (incandescent or fluorescent) and light is well distributed over the area lit by the fixture. Light output remains constant over time, only decreasing towards the end of the rated lifetime (at least 35,000 hours or 12 annums based on use of 8 hours per day).

Excellent color quality. The shade of white light appears clear and consistent over time. Efficiency is as good as or better than fluorescent lighting. Light comes on instantly when turned on. No flicker when dimmed.

No off-state power draw. The fixture does not use power when it is turned off, with the exception of external controls, whose power should not exceed 0.5 watts in the off state. Power factor of at least 0.

7 for all lamps of 5W or greater. Limitations[edit]

Ceiling lights – also known as downlights – are larger spotlight fittings that are often found in more industrial or commercial settings because they are available with higher lumen values.

While they’re older than their younger counterparts, DIP LED chips are still in use today and are more often found built-into electronics due to their diminutive size.

Buying the right LED lights can be a little overwhelming at first. But if you follow this short guide you’ll be on your way to getting the best lighting solution for your home or business.

Now you can fit your home with ‘Smart Bulbs‘, which are incredibly convenient and versatile, and allow you to remotely manage your lighting through voice-control or from a mobile device.

In the past, LED bulbs weren’t always available in the same fittings as traditional bulbs.

The first low-powered LEDs were developed in the early 1960s, and only produced light in the low, red frequencies of the spectrum. The first high-brightness blue LED was demonstrated by Shuji Nakamura of Nichia Corporation in 1994.[8] The existence of blue LEDs and high-efficiency LEDs led to the development of the first ‘white LED’, which employed a phosphor coating to partially convert the emitted blue light to red and green frequencies creating a light that appears white.[9] Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano and Nakamura were later awarded the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics for the invention of the blue LED.[10]

We offer a wide range of LED light bulbs and fittings at great prices. Here are a few more reasons why you can shop with confidence. We offer: 

LED lighting is far greener than traditional lighting, helping domestic and commercial properties lower their carbon footprint and improve their green credentials and energy ratings – a great advantage for businesses who are being pressured to meet government incentives and energy quotas.

A smaller alternative to the large B22 bulb, the B15 bulb measures just 15mm in diameter to accommodate smaller fittings.

Most LEDs do not emit light in all directions, and their directional characteristics affect the design of lamps, although omnidirectional lamps which radiate light over a 360° angle are becoming more common. The light output of single LED is less than that of incandescent and compact fluorescent lamps; in most applications multiple LEDs are used to form a lamp, although high-power versions are becoming available.

BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir Atlanta Illumination with color mixing LED fixtures

The Philips Hue Smart Bulb system allows you to control up to 50 bulbs from your mobile device or through a voice-command system such as Amazon Echo.

RGB or trichromatic white LEDs use multiple LED chips emitting red, green, and blue wavelengths. These three colors combine to produce white light. The color rendering index (CRI) is poor, typically 25 – 65, due to the narrow range of wavelengths emitted.[28] Higher CRI values can be obtained using more than three LED colors to cover a greater range of wavelengths.

This device is then encased within a lamp or fixture, thus becoming an LED light you can use in your home.

As of 2010[update] some LED lamps replaced higher wattage bulbs; for example, one manufacturer claimed a 16-watt LED lamp was as bright as a 150 W halogen lamp.[1] A standard general-purpose incandescent bulb emits light at an efficiency of about 14 to 17 lumens/W depending on its size and voltage. According to the European Union standard, an energy-efficient lamp that claims to be the equivalent of a 60 W tungsten lamp must have a minimum light output of 806 lumens.[40]

LED lamps are used for both general and special-purpose lighting. Where colored light is needed, LEDs that inherently emit light of a single color require no energy-absorbing filters.

The light that LEDs beam come in a variety of shades of white light – which is measured in Kelvins (sit tight…this is something else we’ll get onto later). This means you can pick different shades of light to match different rooms, styles and decors – so you can really personalise living and work areas to your own tastes.

Looking for more information about LED light bulbs and spotlights? You’ve come to the right place.

Disassembled LED-light bulb with driver circuit board and Edison screw

So it’s advised that you invest in an LED compatible transformer for your new LED bulbs to maintain the quality of their light and their lifespan.

White LED lamps have achieved market dominance in applications where high efficiency is important at low power levels. Some of these applications include flashlights, solar-powered garden or walkway lights, and bicycle lights. Monochromatic (colored) LED lamps are now commercially used for traffic signal lamps, where the ability to emit bright monochromatic light is a desired feature, and in strings of holiday lights. LED automotive lamps are widely used for their long life and small size (allowing for multiple bulbs), improving road safety. LED lamps are also becoming popular in homes, especially for bathroom and medicine cabinet lighting.

Before the introduction of LED lamps, three types of lamps were used for the bulk of general (white) lighting:

The Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) in 2008 published a documentary standard LM-79, which describes the methods for testing solid-state lighting products for their light output (lumens), efficacy (lumens per watt) and chromaticity.

The phosphors used in white light LEDs can give color temperatures in the range of 2,200 K (matching incandescent lamps) up to 7,000 K or more.[29] Tunable lighting systems employ banks of colored LEDs that can be individually controlled, either using separate banks of each color, or multi-chip LEDs with the colors combined and controlled at the chip level.[30]

Some LED lamps are made to be a directly compatible drop-in replacement for incandescent or fluorescent lamps. An LED lamp packaging may show the lumen output, power consumption in watts, color temperature in kelvins or description (e.g. “warm white”, “cool white” or “daylight”), operating temperature range, and sometimes the equivalent wattage of an incandescent lamp of similar luminous output.

A transformer is essentially a power-pack that’s used to power your lighting. 12 Volt transformers that are used to power halogen MR11s and MR16s have a minimum load requirement – this is the minimum amount of voltage the transformer needs to power the bulbs they’re connected to.

Fire rated downlights offer an ‘all-in-one’ solution, with a fitting and spotlight both included.

LED tube lights are designed to physically fit in fixtures intended for fluorescent tubes. Some LED tubular lamps are intended to be a drop-in replacement into existing fixtures if appropriate ballast is used. Others require rewiring of the fixtures to remove the ballast. An LED tube lamp generally uses many individual Surface-Mounted LEDs which are directional and require proper orientation during installation as opposed to Fluorescent tube lamps which emit light in all directions around the tube. Most LED tube lights available can be used in place of T8, T10, or T12 tube designations, T8 is D26mm, T10 is D30mm, in lengths of 590 mm (23 in), 1,200 mm (47 in) and 1,500 mm (59 in).

Only quality lighting brands with a proven track record (see above). 3 year warranty on most LED light globes and fixtures (see warranty info). Quick and secure delivery of your lights (see delivery info).

Bulk order lighting discounts for all customers and trades (see pricing info).

Most LED spotlights and bulbs are ‘retrofit’. This means that when replacing a halogen or incandescent bulb you can simply pop, screw or clip your LED bulbs into your existing light fittings without the need for an electrician.

A LED lamp or LED light bulb is an electric light for use in light fixtures that produces light using light-emitting diode (LED). LED lamps have a lifespan and electrical efficiency which are several times greater than incandescent lamps, and are significantly more efficient than most fluorescent lamps,[1][2][3] with some chips able to emit more than 300 lumens per watt (as claimed by Cree and some other LED manufacturers).[4] The LED lamp market is projected to grow by more than twelve-fold over the next decade, from $2 billion in the beginning of 2014 to $25 billion in 2023, a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 25%.[5] As of 2016, LEDs use only about 10% of the energy an incandescent lamp requires.[6]

Most leading edge dimmer switches – which are the most popular for dimming halogen bulbs – have a minimum wattage load of 60W – which is far too high for energy efficient LEDs. If this is the case, you’ll need an LED dimmer switch.

However, it’s worth noting that due to the circuitry makeup of a COB LED chip, they’re unable to emit an eclectic range of different colours.

With increased efficiency, comes lower energy bills – something everyone can benefit from. Lighting is one of the highest consumers of electricity in your household. Switching all of your lighting to LED will help you save hundreds of pounds per-year.

LED drivers are the essential components of LED lamps or luminaries. A good LED driver can guarantee a long life for an LED system and provide additional features such as dimming and control. The LED drivers can be put inside lamp or luminaire, which is called a built-in type, or be put outside, which is called an independent type. According to different applications, different types of LED drivers need to be applied, for example an outdoor driver for street light, an indoor point driver for a down light, and an indoor linear driver for a panel light.

China further boosted LED research and development in 1995 and demonstrated its first LED Christmas tree in 1998. The new LED technology application then became prevalent at the start of the 21st century by US (Cree) and Japan (Nichia, Panasonic, Toshiba, etc.) and then starting 2004 by Korea and China (Samsung, Kingsun, Solstice, Hoyol, etc.)[11][12]

This is because LEDs consume so much less energy than halogen. In these circumstances, we’d recommend upgrading to a compatible LED transformer so you don’t risk any potential damage to the fitting, the lifespan or the quality of the light.

LED spotlights and bulbs last far longer than halogen, incandescent and CFL bulbs. While older lighting often lasts barely a year, if not just a few months, LED lighting has a 15-year average lifespan, giving you far better value for money and saving on replacement bulbs too.

Some organizations recommend that people should not use bluish white lamps at night. The American Medical Association argues against using bluish white LEDs for municipal street lighting.[86]

Fundamentally, there are three different types of LED technology that are used in LED lighting – DIP, SMD and COB.

LED lighting is relatively new on the market. Rudimental LED lighting was first developed in the 1960s, approximately 100 years after the invention of the original incandescent bulb, but it wasn’t until the 90s that they became widely-known for their lighting capabilities.

LED lamps are made with standard lamp connections and shapes, such as an Edison screw base, an MR16 shape with a bi-pin base, or a GU5.3 (bi-pin cap) or GU10 (bayonet fitting) and are made compatible with the voltage supplied to the sockets. They include driver circuitry to rectify the AC power and convert the voltage to an appropriate value, usually a switched-mode power supply.

There are however certain bulbs and spotlights – most notably MR16 and MR11s – that need a constant power supply to operate effectively, so they run off what’s called a ‘transformer’.

The most popular spotlight fitting around. They’re often dimmable and can be used anywhere in the home, from the bathroom to workspaces where you want a little extra focus.

More advanced models come with a PMMA diffuser that helps to create an even light output, which is particularly useful for lighting up larger areas.

Most Popular LED Lights – see our best selling LED lights & fittings. Lowest Priced LED Lights – our full range sorted by price. Latest Lighting Products – newest to oldest product listings.

Below is a comparison between typical LED and halogen bulbs:

White-light LED lamps have longer life expectancy and higher efficiency (more light for the same electricity) than most other lighting when used at the proper temperature. LED sources are compact, which gives flexibility in designing lighting fixtures and good control over the distribution of light with small reflectors or lenses. Because of the small size of LEDs, control of the spatial distribution of illumination is extremely flexible,[38] and the light output and spatial distribution of an LED array can be controlled with no efficiency loss.

Computer-led LED lighting allows enhancement of unique qualities of paintings in the National Museum in Warsaw[37]

A lot of people come unstuck here, but again it’s pretty simple once you understand the jargon. In summary there are:

Color rendering is not identical to incandescent lamps which emit close to perfect black-body radiation as that from the sun and for what eyes have evolved. A measurement unit called CRI is used to express how the light source’s ability to render the eight color sample chips compare to a reference on a scale from 0 to 100.[74] LEDs with CRI below 75 are not recommended for use in indoor lighting.[75]

Incandescent lamps (light bulbs) generate light by passing electric current through a resistive filament, thereby heating the filament to a very high temperature so that it glows and emits visible light over a broad range of wavelengths.

Incandescent sources yield a “warm” yellow or white color quality depending on the filament operating temperature. Incandescent lamps emit 98% of the energy input as heat.[52] A 100 W light bulb for 120 V operation emits about 1,700 lumens, about 17 lumens/W;[53] for 230 V bulbs the figures are 1340 lm and 13.

4 lm/W.[54] Incandescent lamps are relatively inexpensive to make. The typical lifespan of an AC incandescent lamp is 750 to 1,000 hours.[55][56] They work well with dimmers. Most older light fixtures are designed for the size and shape of these traditional bulbs.

In the U.S. the regular sockets are E26 and E11, and E27 and E14 in some European countries. Fluorescent lamps work by passing electricity through mercury vapor, which in turn emits ultraviolet light.

The ultraviolet light is then absorbed by a phosphor coating inside the lamp, causing it to glow, or fluoresce. Conventional linear fluorescent lamps have life spans around 20,000 and 30,000 hours based on 3 hours per cycle according to lamps NLPIP reviewed in 2006.

Induction fluorescent relies on electromagnetism rather than the cathodes used to start conventional linear fluorescent. The newer rare earth triphosphor blend linear fluorescent lamps made by Osram, Philips, Crompton and others have a life expectancy greater than 40,000 hours, if coupled with a warm-start electronic ballast.

The life expectancy depends on the number of on/off cycles, and is lower if the light is cycled often. The ballast-lamp combined system efficacy for then current linear fluorescent systems in 1998 as tested by NLPIP ranged from 80 to 90 lm/W.

[57] Compact fluorescent lamps’ specified lifespan typically ranges from 6,000 hours to 15,000 hours.[55] Electricity prices vary in different areas of the world, and are customer dependent. In the US generally, commercial (0.

103 USD/kWh) and industrial (0.068 USD/kWh) electricity prices are lower than residential (0.123 USD/kWh) due to fewer transmission losses.[58] High-pressure sodium lamps give around 100 lumens/watt which is very similar to LED lamps.

They have much shorter life than LEDs, and their color rendering index is low. They are commonly used for outdoor lighting and in grow lamps. Comparison table[edit] Cost Comparison for 60 watt incandescent equivalent light bulb (U.

S. residential electricity prices) Incandescent[59] Halogen[60] CFL[61] LED (EcoSmart clear)[62] LED (Philips)[63] LED (Cree)[64] LED (V-TAC)[65] Purchase price $0.41 $1.17 $0.99 $3.29 $2.03 $3.50 $1.79 Watts 60 43 14 6.

5 8.5 9.5 9 lumens (mean) 860 750 775[66] 800 800 815 806 lumens/watt 14.3 17.4 55.4 123.1 94.1 85.8 89.6 Color temperature kelvin 2700 2920 2700 2700 2700 2700 2700 CRI 100 100 82 80 80 85 80+ Lifespan (hours) 1,000 1,000 10,000 15,000 10,000 25,000 20,000 Lamp lifetime in years @ 6 hours/day 0.

46 0.46 4.6 6.8 4.6 11.4 9.1 Energy cost over 20 years @ 12.5 cents/kWh $329 $235 $77 $36 $47 $52 $49 Total cost over 20 years $347 $287 $80 $45 $57 $59 $55 Total cost per 860 lumens $347 $329 $88 $49 $61 $62 $58 Comparison based on 6 hours use per day (43,800 hours over 20 yrs)

They are brighter than their DIP predecessors and are also smaller, so even more versatile when it comes to encasing them within smaller electronics or across different types of lighting, such as strip lighting.

It’s important to note that when replacing halogen MR16s with LED equivalents that your existing transformer – which sends a current to the LEDs – may have a minimum load requirement (the minimum amount of wattage that needs to be loaded through the transformer).

There are 4 main colour temperatures to choose from: • Very warm white (under 2700K) • Warm white (2700-3200K) • Daylight (4000K-5000K) • Cool white (5500K-6500K)

The second basic method uses LEDs in conjunction with a phosphor to produce complementary colors from a single LED. Some of the light from the LED is absorbed by the molecules of the phosphor, causing them to fluoresce, emitting light of another color via the Stokes shift. The most common method is to combine a blue LED with a yellow phosphor, producing a narrow range of blue wavelengths and a broad band of “yellow” wavelengths actually covering the spectrum from green to red. The CRI value can range from less than 70 to over 90, although a wide range of commercial LEDs of this type have a color rendering index around 82.[28] Following successive increases in efficacy, which has reached 150 lm/W on a production basis as of 2017, this type has surpassed the performance of trichromatic LEDs.

E27 bulbs are the most popular around. They’re also known as ‘Edison Screw’ bulbs or simply ‘ES’.

Spotlights are incredibly popular in the modern household. They can be used to highlight decorative items in a stylish way, and are also practical thanks to a flat shape and narrow and wide beam options.

For example, a 50 Watt halogen GU10 spotlight will emit approximately 400 lumens, however a 5 Watt LED GU10 spotlight will also emit 400 lumens. The only difference is that the LED GU10 consumes a tenth of the energy to reach that level of brightness.

The long life of LEDs, expected to be about 50 times that of the most common incandescent lamps and significantly longer than fluorescent types, is advantageous for users but will affect manufacturers as it reduces the market for replacements in the distant future.[15]

Teardrop bulbs are becoming immensely popular at the moment. They perfectly complement industrial settings and are best suited when fully exposed from a hanging pendant lamp.

As of 2016, in the opinion of Noah Horowitz of the Natural Resources Defense Council, new standards proposed by the United States Department of Energy would likely mean most light bulbs used in the future would be LED.[22]

A 230-volt LED filament light bulb, with an E27 base. The filament is visible as the eight yellow vertical lines.

The main thing to consider is whether your current dimmer switch can operate an LED bulb, or whether you need an LED compatible dimmer.

They’re not very powerful though, and can only emit a limited amount of brightness.

In addition to being less efficient, operating LEDs at higher electric currents creates higher heat levels which compromise the lifetime of the LED. Because of this increased heating at higher currents, high-brightness LEDs have an industry standard of operating at only 350 mA. 350 mA is a good compromise between light output, efficiency, and longevity.[31][32][33][34]

Early LED lamps varied greatly in chromaticity from the incandescent lamps they were replacing. A standard was developed, ANSI C78.377-2008, that specified the recommended color ranges for solid-state lighting products using cool to warm white LEDs with various correlated color temperatures.[18] In June 2008, NIST announced the first two standards for solid-state lighting in the United States. These standards detail performance specifications for LED light sources and prescribe test methods for solid-state lighting products.

However, this is very misleading, particularly when it comes to LED lighting. Instead, you need to look for lumens.

We have sorted our range of LED lighting products into the following categories:

Halogen spotlight beam angles are restricted to approximately 40 degree angles at most. This means they can only ever offer narrow beam angles.

The human circadian rhythm can be affected by light sources.[79][80] The effective color temperature of daylight is ~5,700K[81] (bluish white) while tungsten lamps are ~2,700K (yellow).[82] People who have circadian rhythm sleep disorders are sometimes treated with light therapy (exposure to intense blueish white light during the day) and dark therapy (wearing amber-tinted goggles at night to reduce blueish light).[83][84][85]

LEDs using the color-mixing principle can emit a wide range of colors by changing the proportions of light generated in each primary color. This allows full color mixing in lamps with LEDs of different colors.[39] Unlike other lighting technologies, LED emission tends to be directional (or at least Lambertian), which can be either advantageous or disadvantageous, depending on requirements. For applications where non-directional light is required, either a diffuser is used, or multiple individual LED emitters are used to emit in different directions.

1 History 1.1 Examples of early adoption 2 Technology overview 2.1 White light LEDs 2.2 LED drivers 2.3 Thermal management 2.4 Efficiency droop 3 Application 3.1 Household LED lamp 3.1.1 Lamp sizes and bases 3.

1.2 LED tube lamps 3.1.3 Lighting designed for LEDs 3.2 Plant 3.3 Specialty 4 Comparison to other lighting technologies 4.1 Comparison table 4.2 Energy Star qualification 5 Limitations 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

Because LEDs use such a small amount of power, they often don’t meet this minimum load requirement. While they may still work, it can detrimentally affect the lifespan of the bulbs.

Research suggests that since the shift to LED street lighting attracts 48% more flying insects than HPS lamps, which could cause direct ecological impacts as well as indirect impacts such as attracting more gypsy moths to port areas.[87]

Compared to other lighting systems LEDs must be kept cool as high temperatures can cause premature failure and reduced light output. Thermal management of high-power LEDs is required to keep the junction temperature close to ambient temperature. LED lamps typically include heat dissipation elements such as heat sinks and cooling fins and very high power lamps for industrial uses are frequently equipped with cooling fans.

Like with an older, less efficient halogen GU10, the LED GU10 features two little pins – or legs – at the base, which means in most cases they can be retrofitted into existing halogen fixtures.

References[edit] Further reading[edit] E. Fred Schubert (8 June 2006). Light-Emitting Diodes. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-45522-0.  Krigel, A; Berdugo, M; Picard, E; Levy-Boukris, R; Jaadane, I; Jonet, L; Dernigoghossian, M; Andrieu-Soler, C; Torriglia, A; Behar-Cohen, F (2016).

“Light-induced retinal damage using different light sources, protocols and rat strains reveals LED phototoxicity” (PDF). Neuroscience. 339: 296–307. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2016.10.015. PMID 27751961.

  External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to LED lamps. e-lumen.eu – a website from the European Commission about the second generation of energy-saving lightbulbs Some cities are taking another look at LED lighting after AMA warning (25 Sept 2016), The Washington Post

LED lamps may flicker. The effect can be seen on a slow motion video of such a lamp. The extent of flicker is based on the quality of the DC power supply built into the lamp structure, usually located in the lamp base. Longer exposures to flickering light contribute to headaches and eye strain.[76][77][78]

The PAR38 is a bulb that kicks-out a lot of lumens (brightness). It comes with a screw fitting and is often used for workshops, security and commercial lighting. LED Smart Bulbs

The wider the spotlight beam angle = the more area below covered with light.

G9s are smaller and are often found in appliances and electronics. They cast a dimmer light, often only beaming a maximum of 300 lumens.

An 80W COB (Chip-On-Board) LED Module from an industrial light luminaire, thermally bonded to the heat sink.

Beam angle is the angle at which a spotlight casts it light and, in turn, the amount of area that’s covered with light.

Warm white or soft white colours (2700K to 3000K) Neutral white, cool white, or daylight colours (4000K to 6500K)

See luminous efficacy for an efficiency chart comparing various technologies.

Firstly, LED lighting uses up to 90% less energy than incandescent and halogen bulbs, and up to 60% less energy than CFL bulbs – which were the first energy-efficient bulbs to be widely sold.

General-purpose lighting requires white light. The first LEDs emitted light in a very narrow band of wavelengths, of a color characteristic of the energy band gap of the semiconductor material used to make the LED. LEDs that emit white light are made using two principal methods: either mixing light from multiple LEDs of various colors, or using a phosphor to convert some of the light to other colors.

Traditional bulbs – such as incandescent and halogen – have only ever been able to offer warm white tones, so this evolution in lighting has given people far more flexibility when creating lighting plans.

A significant difference from other light sources is that the light is more directional, i.e., emitted as a narrower beam.

Looking to set a bit of mood lighting? Then you’re in luck, because LED bulbs can also dim when fitted with a compatible dimmer switch.

Golf ball bulbs are best used to illuminate smaller areas, whether for practical or decorative purposes, because they’re diminutive in size than their bigger globe alternatives. Ideal if space is at a premium.

Experiments revealed surprising performance and production of vegetables and ornamental plants under LED light sources.[50] A large number of plant species have been assessed in greenhouse trials to make sure that the quality of biomass and biochemical ingredients of such plants is comparable with, or even higher than, those grown in field conditions. Plant performance of mint, basil, lentil, lettuce, cabbage, parsley and carrot was measured by assessing both the health and vigor of the plants and the success of the LEDs in promoting growth. Also noticed was profuse flowering of select ornamentals including primula, marigold and stock.[50][51]

Similar to incandescent lamps and unlike most fluorescent lamps (e.g. tubes and compact fluorescent lamps or CFLs), LEDs come to full brightness without need for a warm-up time; the life of fluorescent lighting is also reduced by frequent switching on and off.[7] The initial cost of LED is usually higher. Degradation of LED dye and packaging materials reduces light output to some extent over time.

Incandescent and Halogen lamps naturally have a power factor of 1, but Compact fluorescent and LED lamps use input rectifiers and this causes lower power factors. Low power factors can result in surcharges for commercial energy users; CFL and LED lamps are available with driver circuits to provide any desired power factor, or site-wide power factor correction can be performed. EU standards requires a power factor better than 0.5 for lamp powers up to 25 Watt and above 0.9 for higher power lamps.[69]

In 2009 a new highway (A29) was inaugurated in Aveiro, Portugal, it included the first European public LED-based lighting highway.[25]

LED stands for ‘light emitting diode’ and is a semi-conductor device that turns electricity into light.

Like with the modern LED bulb, the LED spotlight is equally versatile and can often be fitted without additional help from an electrician.

Early suspicions were that the LED droop was caused by elevated temperatures. Scientists proved the opposite to be true — that, although the life of the LED would be shortened, elevated temperatures actually improved the efficiency of the LED.[35] The mechanism causing efficiency droop was identified in 2007 as Auger recombination, which was taken with mixed reaction.[34] In 2013, a study conclusively identified Auger recombination as the cause of efficiency droop.[36]

LED lamps are often made with arrays of surface mount LED modules (SMD modules) that replace incandescent or compact fluorescent lamps, mostly replacing incandescent lamps rated from 5 to 60 watts.

Light emitting diodes (LEDs) offer efficient electric lighting in desired wavelengths (red + blue) which support greenhouse production in minimum time and with high quality and quantity. As LEDs are cool, plants can be placed as close as possible to light sources without overheating or scorching. This saves a large amount of space for intense cultivation.

As of 2016[update], in the United States, LED lamps are close to being adopted as the mainstream light source[48] because of the falling prices and because 40 and 60 watt incandescent lamps are being phased out.[49] In the U.S. the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 effectively bans the manufacturing and importing of most current incandescent lamps. LED lamps have decreased substantially in pricing and many varieties are sold with subsidized prices from local utilities.

Here’s a quick guide to see if the bulb fitting you need is available with LED technology.

Many will not work with existing dimmer switches designed for higher power incandescent lamps.[41]

The term “efficiency droop” refers to the decrease in luminous efficacy of LEDs as the electric current increases above tens of milliamps (mA). Instead of increasing current levels, luminance is usually increased by combining multiple LEDs in one lamp. Solving the problem of efficiency droop would mean that household LED lamps would require fewer LEDs, which would significantly reduce costs.

Kelvins, however, aren’t to be confused with Lumens, which measure brightness. Which also conveniently brings us onto the next section…

A 230-volt LED light bulb, with an E27 base (10 watts, 806 lumens).

Some models of LED lamps are compatible with dimmers as used for incandescent lamps.[41] LED lamps often have directional light characteristics. These lamps are more power-efficient than compact fluorescent lamps[42][better source needed] and offer lifespans of 30,000 or more hours, reduced if operated at a higher temperature than specified. Incandescent lamps have a typical life of 1,000 hours,[43] and compact fluorescents about 8,000 hours.[44] The lamps maintain output light intensity well over their lifetimes. Energy Star specifications require the lamps to typically drop less than 10% after 6,000 or more hours of operation, and in the worst case not more than 15%.[45] LED lamps are available with a variety of color properties. The purchase price is higher than most other lamps, but the higher efficiency may make total cost of ownership (purchase price plus cost of electricity and changing bulbs) lower.[16]

Their efficiency, lifespan and versatility are significantly higher than traditional lighting methods, such as incandescent and fluorescent, but we have more of that later.

Why are the EU proposing such a ban? Well that comes down to the many benefits LED lighting has over their traditional counterparts: halogen and incandescent.

Looking for something a bit more decadent? Then opt for a flame-tipped bulb. Like a candle shaped bulb, they suit chandeliers and Gothic settings, but they offer something a little stylistically different in the extra twist at the top. They – like the candle shaped bulb – are also available in frosted finishes.

Now LEDs have got in on the act. Those who still want that authentic, vintage look can find it in more modern and efficient LED lighting that can mimic the look to great effect.

These downlights also offer extra peace of mind because they’ve been tested to fire safety standards to prevent fire from penetrating surrounding areas, such as ceilings and loft spaces above.

Also in 2008 in the United States and Canada, the Energy Star program began to label lamps that meet a set of standards for starting time, life expectancy, color, and consistency of performance. The intent of the program is to reduce consumer concerns due to variable quality of products, by providing transparency and standards for the labeling and usability of products available in the market.[19] Energy Star Certified Light Bulbs is a resource for finding and comparing Energy Star qualified lamps. A similar program in the United Kingdom (run by the Energy Saving Trust) was launched to identify lighting products that meet energy conservation and performance guidelines.[20]

If your light bulb or fitting is attached to a dimmer switch, make sure you choose one of our lights which is specified as ‘dimmable.’ These lights will normally work on your existing dimmers, but in some cases you may need to upgrade to an LED dimmer.

Filament-style LED bulbs are available in a variety of shapes. Here’s a selection of the most popular and where they could look great in your home…

Categories: Energy-saving lightingAmerican inventionsJapanese inventionsLED lampsLight-emitting diodesSemiconductor devicesTypes of lamp

These are mounted and soldered onto the circuit board, and are probably the most common type of LED chip available.

The R63 is a reflector bulb designed with a protruding bulb-cap to accommodate different lighting fixtures, but features a standard E27 Edison base fitting.

LED display LED headlamp LED filament List of emerging technologies List of light sources Lux Photometry (optics) Radiation angle Solar lamp Spectroscopy

Another popular household spotlight, but not always quite as convenient, the MR16 is the same as the GU10, but features two pins at the base that are slenderer in shape.

October 10, 2017 Comments (26) Bulbs, Help Hub, Insider Tips  1

But don’t just take our word for it: be sure to check out the customer reviews on our product pages.

In the USA, the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 authorized the Department of Energy (DOE) to establish the Bright Tomorrow Lighting Prize competition, known as the “L Prize”,[13] the first government-sponsored technology competition designed to challenge industry to develop replacements for 60 W incandescent lamps and PAR 38 halogen lamps. The EISA legislation established basic requirements and prize amounts for each of the two competition categories, and authorized up to $20 million in cash prizes.[14] The competition also included the possibility for winners to obtain federal purchasing agreements, utility programs, and other incentives. In May 2008, they announced details of the competition and technical requirements for each category. Lighting products meeting the competition requirements could use just 17% of the energy used by most incandescent lamps in use today. That same year the DOE also launched the Energy Star program for solid-state lighting products. The EISA legislation also authorized an additional L Prize program for developing a new “21st Century Lamp”.

This is known as LED colour temperature, which is measured in ‘Kelvins’. The higher the Kelvin rating, the ‘whiter’ or ‘cooler’ the light.

Energy Star is an international standard for energy efficient consumer products.[70][71] Devices carrying the Energy Star service mark generally use 20–30% less energy than required by US standards.[72]

Incandescent lights, which produce light with a glowing filament heated by electric current. These are very inefficient, having a luminous efficacy of 10-17 lumens/W, and also have a short lifetime of 1000 hours.

They are being phased out of general lighting applications. Incandescent lamps produce a continuous black body spectrum of light similar to sunlight, and so produce high Color rendering index (CRI). Fluorescent lamps, which produce ultraviolet light by a glow discharge between two electrodes in a low pressure tube of mercury vapor, which is converted to visible light by a fluorescent coating on the inside of the tube.

These are more efficient than incandescent lights, having a luminous efficacy of around 60 lumens/W, and have a longer lifetime 6,000-15,000 hours, and are widely used for residential and office lighting.

However their mercury content makes them a hazard to the environment, and they have to be disposed of as hazardous waste. Metal-halide lamps, which produce light by an arc between two electrodes in an atmosphere of argon, mercury and other metals, and iodine or bromine.

These were the most efficient white electric lights before LEDs, having a luminous efficacy of 75–100 lumens/W and have a relatively long bulb lifetime of 6,000-15,000 hours, but because they require a 5 – 7 minute warmup period before turning on, are not used for residential lighting, but for commercial and industrial wide area lighting, and outdoor security lights and streetlights.

Like fluorescents, they also contain hazardous mercury.

Looking for something more subtle and practical? Then never forget the standard shaped bulb. It’s incredibly versatile and can be used pretty much anywhere. LED spotlight beam angles

You can put three diodes on a single SMD chip, which means you can create a range of different colours, offering consumers greater variety. This has been a massive development in the LED market.

DIP LED chips are the original LED chips and what many recall when they think of LED lighting.

You need to ensure that the bulb you purchase has a dimming function, but they will state this on the specifications.

Their popularity among consumers and businesses alike is set to sky-rocket, not least from the impact of a proposed ban on incandescent and halogen bulbs set to come into play imminently.

Click on our LED lighting categories below to browse our complete range:

A 17 W tube of LEDs which has the same intensity as a 45 W fluorescent tube

Reduces energy costs — uses at least 75% less energy than incandescent lighting, saving on operating expenses. Reduces maintenance costs — lasts 35 to 50 times longer than incandescent lighting and about 2 to 5 times longer than fluorescent lighting.

No lamp-replacements, no ladders, no ongoing disposal program. Reduces cooling costs — LEDs produce very little heat. Is guaranteed — comes with a minimum three-year warranty — far beyond the industry standard.

Offers convenient features — available with dimming on some indoor models and automatic daylight shut-off and motion sensors on some outdoor models. Is durable – won’t break like a bulb.

They’re used widely across the UK and also over the Atlantic in the US.

In the old days you could just buy a 60W light bulb and that was that. Things aren’t so simple anymore because the energy efficiency of LED lights are advancing so quickly. In other words: the wattage of a light bulb or fitting is no longer a direct guide to its brightness. So be sure to look out for the “equivalent wattage” where provided and also the actual light output (specified in lumens).

A selection of consumer LED bulbs available in 2012 as drop-in replacements for incandescent bulbs in screw-type sockets

Led Light Bulbs And Led Light Fittings