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1 History 2 Concept 3 Day lighting 4 Fixtures 5 Photometric studies 6 Correlated color temperature 7 Categorizing different lighting 8 Methods 9 International professional organizations 10 Iconic designs 11 Notable designers 12 Decorative luminare designers 13 Light-fixture controls 14 Publications on architectural lighting design 15 Architectural design media 15.
1 Terminology 16 Lamp types 16.1 Incandescent light bulb 16.1.1 Halogen lamp 16.2 Fluorescent lamp 16.3 LED lamp 17 See also 18 References 19 External links
Architectural lighting design is a field within architecture, interior design and electrical engineering that is concerned with the design of lighting systems, including natural light, electric light, or both, to serve human needs.
To the extent that a hot surface emits thermal radiation but is not an ideal black-body radiator, the color temperature of the light is not the actual temperature of the surface. An incandescent lamp’s light is thermal radiation, and the bulb approximates an ideal black-body radiator, so its color temperature is essentially the temperature of the filament.
The Broadway musical A Chorus Line was lit using conventional lighting instruments.
The Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) seeks to improve the lighted environment by bringing together those with lighting knowledge and by translating that knowledge into actions that benefit the public.
There are many more nationally-based organizations such as the Schweizerische Licht Gesellschaft (SLG) in Switzerland, the Association des Concepteurs Lumière et Éclairagistes (ACE) in France, the Hellenic Illumination Committee (HIC) in Greece and the Associazione Professionisti dell’Illuminazione (APIL) in Italy.
For simple installations, hand-calculations based on tabular data can be used to provide an acceptable lighting design. More critical or optimized designs now routinely use mathematical modeling on a computer.
The Professional Lighting Designers Association (PLDA) was formed in 1993 as the European Lighting Designers’ Association (ELDA, later ELDA+). Until it was dissolved in 2014, it was with the IALD one of the main authorities regarding lighting design in architecture.
With the increase in global focus on green design and energy codes, lighting design and its role in sustainability have become more well known, resulting in a number of lighting-specific trade publications and an increase in coverage in architectural publications.
For colors based on black-body theory, blue occurs at higher temperatures, while red occurs at lower, cooler, temperatures. This is the opposite of the cultural associations attributed to colors, in which red represents hot, and blue cold.
Illuminated Cherry blossoms, light from the shop windows, and Japanese lantern at night in Ise, Mie, Japan
List of lighting designers Stage lighting PLASA Architectural lighting design Landscape lighting Master Electrician References Stage Lighting Design: The Art, the Craft, the Life, by Richard Pilbrow on books.
google.com Stage Lighting Design: A Practical Guide, Neil Fraser, on books.google.com A Practical Guide to Stage Lighting, By Steven Louis Shelley, on books.google.com The Lighting Art: The Aesthetics of Stage Lighting Design, by Richard H.
Palmer, on books.google.com Stage lighting design in Britain: the emergence of the lighting designer, 1881-1950, by Nigel H. Morgan, on books.google.com Scene Design and Stage Lighting By R. Wolf, Dick Block, on books.
google.com External links
Based on the positions and mounting heights of the fixtures, and their photometric characteristics, the proposed lighting layout can be checked for uniformity and quantity of illumination. For larger projects or those with irregular floor plans, lighting design software can be used. Each fixture has its location entered, and the reflectance of walls, ceiling, and floors can be entered. The computer program will then produce a set of contour charts overlaid on the project floor plan, showing the light level to be expected at the working height. More advanced programs can include the effect of light from windows or skylights, allowing further optimization of the operating cost of the lighting installation. The amount of daylight received in an internal space can typically be analyzed by undertaking a daylight factor calculation.
The most efficient source of electric light is the low-pressure sodium lamp. It produces, for all practical purposes, a monochromatic orange/yellow light, which gives a similarly monochromatic perceprtion of any illuminated scene. For this reason, it is generally reserved for outdoor public lighting usages. Low-pressure sodium lights are favoured for public lighting by astronomers, since the light pollution that they generate can be easily filtered, contrary to broadband or continuous spectra.
Because lighting design is much more abstract than costume or scenic design, it is sometimes difficult for the lighting designer to accurately convey his or her ideas to the rest of the production team. To help the LD communicate the ethereal aspects of lighting, he or she may employ renderings, storyboards, photographs, reproductions of artwork, or mockups of actual lighting effects to help communicate ideas about how the lighting should look. Various forms of paperwork are essential for the LD to successfully communicate their design to various members of the production team. Examples of typical paperwork include cue sheets, lightplots, instrument schedules, shop orders and focus charts. Cue sheets communicate the placement of cues that the LD has created for the show, using artistic terminology rather than technical language, and information on exactly when each cue is called, so that the stage manager and the assistants know when and where to call the cue. Cue sheets are of the most value to stage management.
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The objective of lighting design is the human response, to see clearly and without discomfort. The objective of architectural lighting design is to further the design of architecture or the experience of buildings and other physical structures.
References External links Lighting design glossary International Association of Lighting Designers
The Assistant Lighting Designer assists the Lighting Designer and the Associate Lighting Designer. Depending on the particular arrangement the ALD may report directly to the LD, or they may in essence be the Associate’s assistant. There also may be more than one assistant on a show depending on the size of the production. The ALD will usually:
After focus has occurred the LD usually sits at a temporary desk (tech table) in the theater (typically on the Center Line in the middle of the house) where he or she has a good view of the stage and work with the lighting board operator/programmer, who will either be seated alongside him or her at a portable control console or talk via headset to the control room. At the tech table, the LD will generally use a Magic Sheet, which is a pictorial layout of how the lights relate to the stage, so he or she can have quick access to channel numbers that control particular lighting instruments. The LD may also have a copy of the light plot and channel hookup, a remote lighting console, a computer monitor connected to the light board (so they can see what the board op is doing), and a headset, though in smaller theatres this is less common. There may be a period of time allowed for pre-lighting or “pre-cueing”, a practice that is often done with people known as Light Walkers who stand in for performers so the LD can see what the light looks like on bodies. At an arranged time, the performers arrive and the production is worked through in chronological order, with occasional stops to correct sound, lighting, entrances etc.; known as a “cue-to-cue” or tech rehearsal. The lighting designer will work constantly with the board operator to refine the lighting states as the technical rehearsal continues, but because the focus of a “tech” rehearsal is the production’s technical aspects, the LD may require the performers to pause (“hold”) frequently. Nevertheless, any errors of focusing or changes to the lighting plan are corrected only when the performers are not onstage. These changes take place during ‘work’ or ‘note’ calls. The LD only attends these notes calls if units are hung or rehung and require additional focusing. The LD or Assistant Lighting Director (also known as the ALD, see below for description) will be in charge if in attendance. If the only work to be done is maintenance (i.e. changing a lamp or burnt out gel) then the Production or Master Electrician will be in charge and will direct the Electrics crew.
In addition to computer visualization, either full scale or small scale mock ups are a good method for depicting a lighting designer’s ideas. Fiber optic systems such as LightBox or Luxam allow a users to light a scale model of the set. For example, a set designer can create a model of the set in 1/4″ scale, the lighting designer can then take the fiber optic cables and attach them to scaled down lighting units that can accurately replicate the beam angles of specified lighting fixtures. These ‘mini lights’ can then be attached to cross pieces simulating different lighting positions. Fiber optic fixtures have the capacity to simulate attributes of full scale theatrical lighting fixtures including; color, beam angle, intensity, and gobos. The most sophisticated fiber optic systems are controllable through computer software or a DMX controlled Light board. This gives the lighting designer the ability to mock up real time lighting effects as they will look during the show.
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The Illuminating Engineering Society of Australia and New Zealand was established in 1930 during the Great Depression.
During focus, the LD is up on stage directing members of the Electrics crew on where and how to focus each individual lighting unit. This can be a time consuming and frustrating process. Focus can run much smoother if the Associate LD and the Assistant LD are keeping good track of which lights have been focused, what’s coming up next and directing the electrics crew so that there is minimal down time between focusing each light. They should also direct the LD to which units are next and even what their purpose is and a rough focus.
In Praise of Shadows by Jun’ichirō Tanizaki is an essay on the Japanese aesthetic in contrast with change. Comparisons of light with darkness are used to contrast Western and Asian cultures. The Structure of Light by Richard Kelly The Illumination of Modern Architecture by Dietrich Neumann Made Of Light | Speirs + Major | Designers working with light A Method of Lighting the Stage by Stanley McCandless Architectural Lighting: Designing with Light and Space by Hervé Descottes with Cecilia Ramos (Author) Lighting Design Basics (US empirical system) by Mark Karlen (Author), James R.
Benya (Author), The Architecture Of Light: A textbook of procedures and practices for the Architect, Interior Designer and Lighting Designer. by Sage Russell Lighting Retrofit and Relighting: A Guide to Energy Efficient Lighting by James R.
Benya (Author), Donna J. Leban Fundamentals of Lighting by Susan M. Winchip Designing With Light: The Art, Science and Practice of Architectural Lighting Design by Jason Livingston. Lighting : basic concepts / Warren G.
Julian, editor ; written by members of the Architectural Science Dept, University of Sydney Architectures de lumières (2003) by Louis Clair (bilingual publication, in French and English) Architectural design media
Single color LEDs are well developed technology, but white LEDs at time of writing[when?] still have some unresolved issues:
Incandescent light bulbs Arc lamps Gas-discharge lamps (e.g. fluorescent and compact fluorescent lamps, neon lamps, metal halide lamps, modern photographic flashes) Lasers Light-emitting diodes (LEDs), including OLEDs Sulfur lamps
There is currently interest in banning some types of filament lamp in some countries, such as Australia planning to ban standard incandescent light bulbs by 2010, because they are inefficient at converting electricity to light. Sri Lanka has already banned importing filament bulbs because of high use of electricity and less light. Less than 3% of the input energy is converted into usable light. Nearly all of the input energy ends up as heat that, in warm climates, must then be removed from the building by ventilation or air conditioning, often resulting in more energy consumption. In colder climates where heating and lighting is required during the cold and dark winter months, the heat byproduct has at least some value.
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Lighting fixtures come in a wide variety of styles for various functions. The most important functions are as a holder for the light source, to provide directed light and to avoid visual glare. Some are very plain and functional, while some are pieces of art in themselves. Nearly any material can be used, so long as it can tolerate the excess heat and is in keeping with safety codes.
A theatre lighting designer (or LD) works with the director, choreographer, set designer, costume designer, and sound designer to create the lighting, atmosphere, and time of day for the production in response to the text, while keeping in mind issues of visibility, safety, and cost. The LD also works closely with the stage manager or show control programming, if show control systems are used in that production. Outside stage lighting, the job of a Lighting Designer can be much more diverse and they can be found working on rock and pop tours, corporate launches, art installation and on massive celebration spectaculars, for example the Olympic Games opening and closing ceremonies.
The International Association of Lighting Designers (IALD) was founded in 1969, and its current mission is “to serve the IALD worldwide membership by promoting the visible success of its members in practicing lighting design.” The organization created a new attitude towards the profession and raised the profile of architectural lighting design, one its principal goals.
The color temperature of a light source is the temperature of an ideal black-body radiator that radiates light of comparable hue to that of the light source. Color temperature is a characteristic of visible light that has important applications in lighting, photography, videography, publishing, manufacturing, astrophysics, horticulture, and other fields. In practice, color temperature is only meaningful for light sources that do in fact correspond somewhat closely to the radiation of some black body, i.e., those on a line from reddish/orange via yellow and more or less white to blueish white; it does not make sense to speak of the color temperature of, e.g., a green or a purple light. Color temperature is conventionally stated in the unit of absolute temperature, the kelvin, having the unit symbol K.
The CIE 1931 x,y chromaticity space, also showing the chromaticities of black-body light sources of various temperatures (Planckian locus), and lines of constant correlated color temperature
*Color temperature is defined as the temperature of a black body emitting a similar spectrum; these spectra are quite different from those of black bodies.
Photometric studies (also sometimes referred to as “layouts” or “point by points”) are often used to simulate lighting designs for projects before they are built or renovated. This enables architects, lighting designers, and engineers to determine whether a proposed lighting setup will deliver the amount of light intended. They will also be able to determine the contrast ratio between light and dark areas. In many cases these studies are referenced against IESNA or CIBSE recommended lighting practices for the type of application. Depending on the type of area, different design aspects may be emphasized for safety or practicality (i.e. such as maintaining uniform light levels, avoiding glare or highlighting certain areas). Specialized software is often used to create these, which typically combine the use of two-dimensional digital CAD drawings and lighting simulation software.
Indicator LEDs are known for their extremely long life, up to 100,000 hours, but lighting LEDs are operated much less conservatively (due to high LED cost per watt), and consequently have much shorter lives.
The Zonal Cavity Method is used as a basis for both hand, tabulated, and computer calculations. This method uses the reflectance coefficients of room surfaces to model the contribution to useful illumination at the working level of the room due to light reflected from the walls and the ceiling. Simplified photometric values are usually given by fixture manufacturers for use in this method.
Changes should not be made after the lighting design is finished, and never without the LD’s approval. There may be times when changes are necessary after the production has officially opened. Reasons for changes after opening night include: casting changes; significant changes in blocking; addition, deletion or rearrangement of scenes; or the tech and/or preview period (if there was a preview period) was too short to accommodate as thorough a cueing as was needed (this is particularly common in dance productions). If significant changes need to be made, the LD will come in and make them, however if only smaller changes are needed, the LD may opt to send the ALD. If a show runs for a particularly long time then the LD may come in periodically to check the focus of each lighting instrument and if they are retaining their color (some gel, especially saturated gel, loses its richness and can fade or ‘burn out’ over time). The LD may also sit in on a performance to make sure that the cues are still being called at the right place and time. The goal is often to finish by the opening of the show, but what is most important is that the LD and the directors believe that the design is finished to each’s satisfaction. If that happens to be by opening night, then after opening no changes are normally made to that particular production run at that venue. The general maintenance of the lighting rig then becomes the responsibility of the Master Electrician.
CCT dimming for LED technology is regarded as a difficult task, since binning, age and temperature drift effects of LEDs change the actual color value output. Here feedback loop systems are used for example with color sensors, to actively monitor and control the color output of multiple color mixing LEDs.
Gas lighting was economical enough to light streets in major cities starting in the early 1800s, and was also used in some commercial buildings and in the homes of wealthy people. The gas mantle boosted the luminosity of utility lighting and of kerosene lamps. The next major drop in price came about with the incandescent light bulb powered by electricity.
The kind of human activity for which lighting is to be provided The amount of light required The color of the light as it may affect the views of particular objects and the environment as a whole The distribution of light within the space to be lighted, whether indoor or outdoor The effect of the lightened system itself on the user
Due to the relatively high cost per watt, LED lighting is most useful at very low powers, typically for lamp assemblies of under 10 W. LEDs are currently most useful and cost-effective in low power applications, such as nightlights and flashlights. Colored LEDs can also be used for accent lighting, such as for glass objects, and even in fake ice cubes for drinks at parties. They are also being increasingly used as holiday lighting.
In the last few years, software has been developed to merge lighting and video by enabling lighting designers to stream video content to their LED fixtures, creating low resolution video walls.
The PH-lamps are a series of light fixtures designed by Danish designer and writer Poul Henningsen from 1926 onwards. The lamp is designed with multiple concentric shades to eliminate visual glare, only emitting reflected light, obscuring the light source.
Once the show is open to the public, the lighting designer will often stay and watch several performances of the show, making notes each night and making desired changes the next day during notes call. If the show is still in previews, then the LD will make changes, but once the production officially opens, normally the lighting designer will not make further changes.
It is uncommon for a small theatre to have a very large technical crew, as there is less work to do. Many times, the lighting crew of a small theatre will consist of a single lighting designer and one to three people, who collectively are in charge of hanging, focusing and patching all lighting instruments. The lighting designer, in this situation, commonly works directly with this small team, fulfilling the role of both master electrician and lighting designer. Many times the designer will directly participate in the focusing of lights. The same crew will generally also program cues and operate the light board during rehearsals and performances. In some cases, the light board and sound board are operated by the same person, depending on the complexity of the show. The lighting designer may also take on other roles in addition to lights when they are finished hanging lights and programming cues on the board.
Halogen lamps are usually much smaller than standard incandescents, because for successful operation a bulb temperature over 200 °C is generally necessary. For this reason, most have a bulb of fused silica (quartz), but sometimes aluminosilicate glass. This is often sealed inside an additional layer of glass. The outer glass is a safety precaution, reducing UV emission and because halogen bulbs can occasionally explode during operation. One reason is if the quartz bulb has oily residue from fingerprints. The risk of burns or fire is also greater with bare bulbs, leading to their prohibition in some places unless enclosed by the luminaire.
Categorizing different lighting Temperature Source 1,700 K Match flame, low-pressure sodium lamps (LPS/SOX) 1,850 K Candle flame, sunrise, sunset 2,700–3,300 K Incandescent lamps, soft-white fluorescent lamps 3,000 K Warm-white fluorescent lamps 4,100–4,150 K Moonlight, cool-white fluorescent lamps 5,000 K Horizon daylight 5,500–6,000 K Vertical daylight, electronic flash 6,200 K Xenon short-arc lamp 6,500 K Daylight, overcast, daylight fluorescent lamps 6,500–10,500 K LCD or CRT screen 15,000–27,000 K Clear blue poleward sky These temperatures are merely characteristic;considerable variation may be present.
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Solid state light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been popular as indicator lights since the 1970s. In recent years, efficacy and output have risen to the point where LEDs are now being used in niche lighting applications.
LED technology is useful for lighting designers because of its low power consumption, low heat generation, instantaneous on-and-off control, and in the case of single color LEDs, continuity of color throughout the life of the diode and relatively low cost of manufacture.
LED efficiencies vary over a very wide range. Some have lower efficiency than filament lamps, and some significantly higher. LED performance in this respect is prone to being misinterpreted, as the inherent directionality of LEDs gives them a much higher light intensity in one direction per given total light output.
The LD will read the script carefully and make notes on changes in place and time between scenes – such changes are often done just with lighting to avoid too many blackouts in one scene – and will have meetings (called design or production meetings) with the director, designers, stage manager, and production manager to discuss ideas for the show and establish budget and scheduling details. The LD will also attend several later rehearsals to observe the way the actors are being directed to use the stage area (‘blocking’) during different scenes, and will receive updates from the stage manager on any changes that occur. The LD will also make sure that he or she has an accurate plan of the theatre’s lighting positions and a list of their equipment, as well as an accurate copy of the set design, especially the ground plan and section. The LD must take into account the show’s mood and the director’s vision in creating a lighting design.
The National Council on Qualifications for the Lighting Professions (NCQLP) is a non-profit organization founded in 1991 to serve and protect the well-being of the public through effective and efficient lighting practice. Through a peer-review process, the NCQLP establishes the education, experience and examination requirements for baseline certification across the lighting professions. The NCQLP has established a certification process by which practitioners in lighting and related fields, through testing, demonstrate their knowledge and experience across the lighting professions. Those who successfully complete the NCQLP Lighting Certification Examination are entitled to use the appellation LC (Lighting Certified) after their name for professional purposes.
Computer modeling of outdoor flood lighting usually proceeds directly from photometric data. The total lighting power of a lamp is divided into small solid angular regions. Each region is extended to the surface which is to be lit and the area calculated, giving the light power per unit of area. Where multiple lamps are used to illuminate the same area, each one’s contribution is summed. Again the tabulated light levels (in lux or foot-candles) can be presented as contour lines of constant lighting value, overlaid on the project plan drawing. Hand calculations might only be required at a few points, but computer calculations allow a better estimate of the uniformity and lighting level.
The color temperature of the electromagnetic radiation emitted from an ideal black body is defined as its surface temperature in kelvins, or alternatively in mireds (micro-reciprocal kelvin). This permits the definition of a standard by which light sources are compared.
Active daylighting Architectural glass Architectural light shelf Architecture of the night Daylight Daylight factor Daylight harvesting Deck prism Light art Light + Building Lighting control system Lighting for the elderly List of lighting design applications Lumen method Passive daylighting Passive solar building design Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) Skylight Smart glass Sun path Transom (architectural) Vivid Sydney
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1 During pre-production 2 In small theatres 3 Advances in visualization and presentation 4 Mockups and lighting scale models 5 Additional members of the lighting design team 5.1 The Associate Lighting Designer 5.
2 The Assistant Lighting Designer 5.3 A note on focus 6 See also 7 References 8 External links
If the production is large or especially complex, the Lighting Designer may hire additional lighting professionals to help execute the design.
The lighting designer is responsible, in conjunction with the production’s independently hired “Production Electrician” who will interface with the theatre’s Master Electrician, for directing the theatre’s electrics crew in the realization of his or her designs during the technical rehearsals. After the Electricians have hung, circuited and patched the lighting units, the LD will direct the focusing (pointing, shaping and sizing of the light beams) and gelling (coloring) of each unit.
For lighting building interiors, it is often important to take into account the color temperature of illumination. For example, a warmer (i.e., lower color temperature) light is often used in public areas to promote relaxation, while a cooler (higher color temperature) light is used to enhance concentration in offices.
The modern incandescent light bulb, with a coiled filament of tungsten, was commercialized in the 1920s developed from the carbon filament lamp introduced in about 1880. As well as bulbs for normal illumination, there is a very wide range, including low voltage, low-power types often used as components in equipment, but now largely displaced by LEDs
The Professional Lighting & Sound Association (PLASA) represents the interests of many lighting designers and manufacturers, several of which are involved in the Architectural lighting market. PLASA is UK orientated, but does represent companies on a European and International level.
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As the Sun crosses the sky, it may appear to be red, orange, yellow or white depending on its position. The changing color of the Sun over the course of the day is mainly a result of scattering of light and is not due to changes in black-body radiation. The blue color of the sky is caused by Rayleigh scattering of the sunlight from the atmosphere, which tends to scatter blue light more than red light.
Many other light sources, such as fluorescent lamps, or LEDs (light emitting diodes) emit light primarily by processes other than thermal radiation. This means that the emitted radiation does not follow the form of a black-body spectrum. These sources are assigned what is known as a correlated color temperature (CCT). CCT is the color temperature of a black-body radiator which to human color perception most closely matches the light from the lamp. Because such an approximation is not required for incandescent light, the CCT for an incandescent light is simply its unadjusted temperature, derived from the comparison to a black-body radiator.
The Associate Lighting Designer will help assist the Lighting Designer in creating and executing the lighting design. While the duties that an LD may expect the Associate LD to perform may differ from person to person, usually the Ass’t LD will do the following:
Different types of lights have vastly differing efficiencies and color of light. 
Categories: Lighting designersLighting engineersFilmmaking occupationsStage crewLandscape or garden designersStage lightingTelevision terminologyBroadcasting occupationsDesign occupationsMedia occupationsTheatrical occupations
CRI is not particularly good, resulting in less than accurate color rendition. The light distribution from the phosphor does not fully match the distribution of light from the LED die, so color temperature varies at differing angles.
Phosphor performance degrades over time, resulting in change of color temperature and falling output. With some LEDs degradation can be quite fast. Limited heat tolerance means that the amount of power packable into a lamp assembly is a fraction of the power usable in a similarly sized incandescent lamp.
Fluorescent lamps consist of a glass tube that contains mercury vapour or argon under low pressure. Electricity flowing through the tube causes the gases to give off ultraviolet energy. The inside of the tubes are coated with phosphors that give off visible light when struck by ultraviolet energy. have much higher efficiency than Incandescent lamps. For the same amount of light generated, they typically use around one-quarter to one-third the power of an incandescent.
Attend design and production meetings with the LD or the Associate LD Attend rehearsals with the LD or the Associate LD Assist the LD in generating the light plot and channel hookup. If the plot is to be computer generated, the ALD is the one who physically enters the information into the computer.
The ALD may run errands for the LD such as picking up supplies or getting the light plot printed in large format. The ALD will help the Associate LD in running focus. The ALD may take Focus Charts during focus.
Track and coordinate Followspots (if any exist for the production) and generate paperwork to aid in their cueing and color changes. In rare instances the ALD may be the light board operator. A note on focus
The International Commission on Illumination (CIE) is an organization “devoted to international cooperation and exchange of information among its member countries on all matters relating to the science and art of lighting.” CIE works globally to develop and publish lighting design standardization and best-practice documents.
ald.org.uk, A comprehensive list of UK Lighting Designers danceusa.org, How to Work with a Lighting Designer—An article (written primarily for choreographers) on process and effective collaboration. stagelightingprimer.
com,Stage Lighting for Students northern.edu, A brief history of stage lighting The Lighting Archive thelightingarchive.org, online complete lighting paperwork for West Side Story, Porgy and Bess, Sweeney Todd, Martha Graham, Alvin Ailey, by lighting designers Nicola Cernovich, Jean Rosenthal, Ken Billington, and Gilbert Hemsley] New York Public Library – Theatrical Lighting Database online complete lighting paperwork for Hair (musical) by Jules Fisher, A Chorus Line by Tharon Musser, Sunday in the Park with George by Richard Nelson, and Fall River Legend by Thomas Skelton.
www.lightingschool.eu, Elearning course of the European Lighting School http://charlesjhurst3.wixsite.com/charleslighting https://callumsconquest.wixsite.com/callumconquest
Name Optical spectrum Nominal efficiency (lm/W) Lifetime (MTTF) (hours) Color temperature (kelvin) Color Colorrenderingindex Incandescent light bulb Continuous 4-17 2-20000 2400-3400 Warm white (yellowish) 100 Halogen lamp Continuous 16-23 3000-6000 3200 Warm white (yellowish) 100 Fluorescent lamp Mercury line + Phosphor 52-100 (white) 8000-20000 2700-5000* White (various color temperatures), as well as saturated colors available 15-85 Metal halide lamp Quasi-continuous 50-115 6000-20000 3000-4500 Cold white 65-93 Sulfur lamp Continuous 80-110 15000-20000 6000 Pale green 79 High pressure sodium Broadband 55-140 10000-40000 1800-2200* Pinkish orange 0-70 Low pressure sodium Narrow line 100-200 18000-20000 1800* Yellow, no color rendering 0 Light-emitting diode Line plus phosphor 10-110 (white) 50,000-100,000 Various white from 2700 to 6000* Various color temperatures, as well as saturated colors 70-85 (white) Induction Lamp (External Coil) Mercury line + Phosphor 70-90 (white) 80,000-100,000 Various white from 2700 to 6000* Various color temperatures, as well as saturated colors 70-85 (white)
The role of the lighting designer varies greatly within professional and amateur theater. For a Broadway show, a touring production and most regional and small productions the LD is usually an outside freelance specialist hired early in the production process. Smaller theatre companies may have a resident lighting designer responsible for most of the company’s productions or rely on a variety of freelance or even volunteer help to light their productions. At the Off-Broadway or Off-Off-Broadway level, the LD will occasionally be responsible for much of the hands-on technical work (hanging instruments, programming the light board, etc.) that would be the work of the lighting crew in a larger theater.
Categories: Architectural lighting designArchitectural designArchitectural elementsBuilding technologyGarden featuresLighting
The light plot is a scale drawing that communicates the location of lighting fixtures and lighting positions so a team of electricians can independently install the lighting system. Next to each instrument on the plan will be information for any color gel, gobo, or other accessory that needs to go with it, and its channel number. Often, paperwork listing all of this information is also generated by using a program such as Lightwright. The lighting designer uses this paperwork to aid in the visualization of not only ideas but simple lists to assist the Master Electrician during load-in, focus and technical rehearsals. Professional LDs generally use special computer-aided design packages to create accurate and easily readable drafted plots that can be swiftly updated as necessary. The LD will discuss the plot with the show’s production manager and the theatre’s master electrician or technical director to make sure there are no unforeseen problems during load-in.
Saw-tooth roof design, circa 1827, British engineer and architect William Fairbairn, credited with the first designs for what he termed the shed principle Austrian Postal Savings Bank Vienna 1904-1912, architect Otto Wagner AEG turbine factory 1909, Berlin district of Moabit, architect Peter Behrens.
 It is an influential and well-known example of industrial architecture. Its revolutionary design features 100m long and 15m tall glass and steel walls on either side. Fagus Factory, Germany 1913, by architect Walter Gropius Bauhaus, Desau Germany 1919, by architect Walter Gropius Villa Savoye, France (1929–31) by architect Le Corbusier.
The second floor includes long strips of ribbon windows that allow unencumbered views of the large surrounding garden, and which constitute the fourth point of his five-point system for architecture. Glass House, Connecticut 1949, architect Philip Johnson, Mies van der Rohe concept, lighting design by Richard Kelly General Motors Technical Center 1949, architect Eero Saarinen, lighting design by Richard Kelly.
MIT Chapel Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1955, architect Eero Saarinen, a non-denominational chapel Seagram Building, New York City 1958, architect Mies van der Rohe with Philip Johnson, lighting design by Richard Kelly Kimbell Art Museum 1972, architect Louis Kahn, lghting Design by Richard Kelly Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban (National Assembly Building) in Dhaka, Bangladesh, 1962 to 1974, designed by Louis Kahn Musée d’Orsay Paris 1984, lighting Design by Gae Aulenti Louvre Pyramid (Pyramide du Louvre) designed by the architect I.
M. Pei, completed 1999 Institut de Monde Arabe 1987, architect Jean Nouvel and Architecture-Studio Neues Museum Berlin reopened 2009, architect David Chipperfield, lighting designer Kardorff Ingenieure Arena do Morro, Brazil 2014, architect Herzog & de Meuron Auditorium of the Vyborg Library, 1930s, architect Alvar Aalto 30 St Mary Axe (The Gherkin) 2004, London architect Foster and Partners, lighting designer Speirs and Major Associates Notable designers Gae Aulenti was an Italian architect, lighting designer, interior designer and industrial designer for buildings such as the Musée d’Orsay.
Ray Grenald, founding member of the IALD George Izenour, theatrical lighting designer. His patents form the modern lighting control consoles. Rogier van der Heide, theatre and architectural lighting designer, recipient of the IALD Radiance Award and awarded Lighting Designer of the Year.
Chief Design Officer of Philips Lighting Richard Kelly, lighting designer for significant modernist buildings Leslie Wheel, founding member of the IALD Decorative luminare designers Charlotte Perriand 1950 table lamp for Philips Marianne Brandt Kandem Bedside Table Lamp (1928) and pull lamp (1926) Poul Henningsen lighting designer for Louis Poulsen Christian Dell Head of silversmithing at the Bauhaus, As an early industrial designer and pioneer of plastic design, Dell used bakelite and aminoplastics as materials for his works for Molitor-Zweckleuchten in 1929-30.
Well known are the lights for the lamp factory Gebr. Kaiser & Co. in Neheim Hüsten beginning in 1933-34, which were produced in large quantities. Wilhelm Wagenfeld Eileen Gray Her architecture demonstrates a profound knowledge for space, the use of light, and ingenious planning.
Light-fixture controls 3-way 2-circuit switch Dimmer Light switch (often part of the light socket or power cord on portable fixtures) Lighting control system Motion detector Timer Touch X10 (industry standard) systems 0-10 V lighting control Digital Addressable Lighting Interface Dali dimmable Publications on architectural lighting design
Architectural lighting design focuses on three fundamental aspects of the illumination of buildings or spaces. The first is the aesthetic appeal of a building, an aspect particularly important in the illumination of retail environments. Secondly, the ergonomic aspect: the measure of how much of a function the lighting plays. Thirdly is the energy efficiency issue to ensure that light is not wasted by over illumination, either by illuminating vacant spaces unnecessarily or by providing more light than needed for the aesthetics or the task. Cultural factors also need to be considered; for example, bright lights was a mark of wealth through much of Chinese history.
As previously mentioned, it is difficult to fully communicate the intent of a lighting design before all the lights are installed and all the cues are written. With the advancement in computer processing and visualization software, lighting designers are now able to create computer generated images (CGI) that represent their ideas. The lighting designer enters the light plot into the visualization software and then enters the ground plan of the theater and set design, giving as much three-dimensional data as possible (which helps in creating complete renderings). This creates a 3D model in computer space that can be lit and manipulated. Using the software, the LD can use the lights from his plot to create actual lighting in the 3D model with the ability to define parameters such as color, focus, gobo, beam angle etc. The designer can then take renderings or “snapshots” of various looks that can then be printed out and shown to the director and other members of the design team.
Color temperature for white light sources also affects their use for certain applications. The color temperature of a white light source is the temperature in kelvins of a theoretical black body emitter that most closely matches the spectral characteristics of the lamp. An incandescent bulb has a color temperature around 2800 to 3000 kelvins; daylight is around 6400 kelvins. Lower color temperature lamps have relatively more energy in the yellow and red part of the visible spectrum, while high color temperatures correspond to lamps with more of a blue-white appearance. For critical inspection or color matching tasks, or for retail displays of food and clothing, the color temperature of the lamps will be selected for the best overall lighting effect. Color may also be used for functional reasons. For example, blue light makes it difficult to see veins and thus may be used to discourage drug use.
An important property of light fixtures is the luminous efficacy or wall-plug efficiency, meaning the amount of usable light emanating from the fixture per used energy, usually measured in lumen per watt. A fixture using replaceable light sources can also have its efficiency quoted as the percentage of light passed from the “bulb” to the surroundings. The more transparent the lighting fixture is, the higher efficacy. Shading the light will normally decrease efficiency but increase the directionality and the visual comfort probability.
The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new article, as appropriate.
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Attend design and production meetings with or in place of the LD Attend rehearsals with or in place of LD and take notes of specific design ideas and tasks that the lighting department needs to accomplish Assist the LD in generating the light plot, channel hookup and sketches If needed, the Associate may need to take the set drawings and put them into a CAD program to be manipulated by the LD (however, this job is usually given to the Assistant LD if there is one).
The Ass’t LD may be in charge of running focus, and may even direct where the lights are to be focused. The Associate is generally authorized to speak on behalf of the LD and can make creative and design decisions when needed (and when authorized by the LD).
This is one of the biggest differences between the Associate and the Assistant. The Assistant Lighting Designer
Light designer Robert Edmond Jones (1887–1954) drawing at a waist high table (c. 1920).
After the tech process, the performance may (or may not, depending on time constraints) go into Dress rehearsal without a ticketed audience and/or Previews with a ticketed audience. During this time, if the cueing is finished, the LD will sit in the audience and take notes on what works and what needs changing. At this point, the Stage Manager will begin to take over the work of calling cues for the light board op to follow. Generally, the LD will stay on headset, and may still have a monitor connected to the light board in case of problems, or will be in the control booth with the board operator when a monitor is not available. Often, changes will take place during notes call, but if serious problems occur the performance may be halted and the issue will be resolved then.
Terminology Recessed light The protective housing is concealed behind a ceiling or wall, leaving only the fixture itself exposed. The ceiling-mounted version is often called a downlight. “Cans” with a variety of lamps Jargon for inexpensive downlighting products that are recessed into the ceiling, or sometimes for uplights placed on the floor.
The name comes from the shape of the housing. The term “pot lights” is often used in Canada and parts of the US. Cove light Recessed into the ceiling in a long box against a wall. Floor lamp Troffer Recessed fluorescent light fixtures, usually rectangular in shape to fit into a drop ceiling grid.
Surface-mounted light The finished housing is exposed, not flush mount with surface Chandelier Pendant light Suspended from the ceiling with a chain or pipe Sconce Provide up or down lights; can be used to illuminate artwork, architectural details; commonly used in hallways or as an alternative to overhead lighting.
Track lighting fixture Individual fixtures (“track heads”) can be positioned anywhere along the track, which provides electric power. Under-cabinet light Mounted below kitchen wall cabinets Emergency lighting or exit sign Connected to a battery backup or to an electric circuit that has emergency power if the mains power fails High- and low-bay lighting Typically used for general lighting for industrial buildings and often big-box stores Strip lights or Industrial lighting Often long lines of fluorescent lamps used in a warehouse or factory Outdoor lighting and landscape lighting Used to illuminate walkways, parking lots, roadways, building exteriors and architectural details, gardens, and parks.
Bollard A type of architectural outdoor lighting that is a short, upright ground-mounted unit typically used to provide cutoff type illumination for egress lighting, to light walkways, steps, or other pathways.
Street light Flood lighting Usually pole- or stanchion-mounted — for landscape, roadways, and parking lots Lamp types